104 terms

ITGS Chapter 15 - IT Systems in Organisations (HL only)

Key terms for the ITGS Higher Level (HL) topic IT Systems in Organisations. These relate to chapter 15 of the textbook (www.itgstextbook.com).
STUDY
PLAY
acceptance testing
Testing performed by the client and users as part of the handover process.
adaptive maintenance
Maintenance that changes software to make it work with a new software environment.
agile development
Development method that focuses on creating small, working parts of a project at regular intervals.
alpha testing
Initial testing of an IT system.
analyst
In project development, person who documents the current system, finding its problems and areas for improvement
attributes
Component of an Entity Relationship Diagram.
beta tester
Person who attempts to find bugs in software before it is released to customers.
beta testing
Testing of an IT system once all features have been added and only bugs need to be worked out.
bug tracking system
Used to track and manage bugs in a piece of software.
bugs
Errors in a computer program or system, hopefully found during testing.
business case
Analysis of the benefits and problems of a proposed IT project.
Capability Maturity Model Integration
Quality assurance method that describes an organisation's level of maturity.
cardinality
Property of a relationship in an Entity Relationship Diagram.
changeover
Moving from an old system to a new IT system.
client
Person or organisation who commissions an IT project.
CMMI
Quality assurance method that describes an organisation's level of maturity.
constraints
Limitations within which an IT system must work.
corrective maintenance
Maintenance that fixes bugs in software.
CP
Longest (slowest) path through a project's development, as determined by using a PERT chart.
Critical Path
Longest (slowest) path through a project's development, as determined by using a PERT chart.
Custom / bespoke software
Software created specific for an individual or organisation.
data collection
Used to find information about an existing system during the development of a new system.
Data Flow Diagram
Shows processes in a system and the flows of data between them.
data structure
The way the data within an IT system is organised and related.
database administrator
The person in an organisation who is responsible for setting up, maintaining, and monitoring the organisation's database(s).
delivery
Installing a new IT system at the client's premises.
deployment
Stage in the SDLC where the system is deployed at the client's site.
development manager
In project development, person who oversees programmers as they create the system specified in the design.
DFD
Shows processes in a system and the flows of data between them.
direct changeover
Immediate removal of an old system and complete replacement with a new IT system.
emulator
A computer program which simulates another type of computer, so that it can run programs designed for it.
end-user
Person who will use an IT project one it is finished.
entities
Component of an Entity Relationship Diagram.
entity relationship diagram
Shows the items of data stored in a system and the relationships between them.
ERD
Shows the items of data stored in a system and the relationships between them.
feasibility study
Examination of a proposed system to see if its creation is possible.
Frequently Asked Questions
A list of common problems that users experience, and their answers.
functional requirements
Specific features and functions that a proposed IT system must have.
Gantt chart
Used to chart the stages of a planned IT project and the people responsible for each stage.
handover
Point at which the developers of a system formally pass it to the client.
IDE
Set of programs used by system developers to create IT systems.
implementation
Stage in the SDLC where the system is created (programmed).
incident escalation
Moving a problem with an IT project to a higher level if it cannot be solved.
Incident management system
Used to keep track of problems and difficulties encountered in an IT system.
incident tracking system
Used to keep track of problems and difficulties encountered in an IT system.
information system (IS) managers
Person responsible for all IT purchases, deployments, and systems within an organisation.
installation
Installing a new IT system at the client's premises.
Integrated Development Environment
Set of programs used by system developers to create IT systems.
internal support
Support for an IT system provided within an organisation.
legacy system
An old, out of date IT system which is still used because it is essential to an organisation.
load testing
Testing of an IT system with the amount of work it can be expected to process in real world conditions.
maintenance
Alterations made to a system after it has been formally handed over.
milestones
Key points during project development, such as the completion of a stage.
network manager
The person responsible for the installation, configuration, and monitoring of an organisation's network.
non-functional requirements
Conditions that a proposed IT system must meet, such as working on certain hardware or giving results within a certain time.
off-the-shelf software
Software which is widely available and can be bought by anybody.
online lessons
A form of training delivered online.
organisational IT policies
Policies governing the appropriate use of IT, data integrity, security procedures, and other aspects of IT use with an organisation.
outputs
During analysis, a list of the results that a system must produce.
parallel running
Running the old system and the new system side by side.
perfective maintenance
Maintenance that changes software to incorporate new user requirements (or changed requirements).
PERT chart
Charting system to show the inter-dependencies in projects.
phase out
Gradually removing an old IT system from use.
phased changeover
One part of an organisation switches to a new IT system to test it, while others remain using the old system.
PMBoK
Project Management Body of Knowledge. A project management methodology.
preventative maintenance
Maintenance that changes software to avoid possible future problems.
PRINCE2
PRojects IN Controlled Environments 2. A project management methodology.
processes
During analysis, a list of the procedures a system must implement.
procurement
The act of acquiring the necessary items (software, hardware, staff) to develop an IT system.
programmer
A person who writes computer programs by following a design document.
project goals
Clear statement of the intentions of a proposed IT project.
project initiation document
Document used in PRINCE2 to describe the key features of an IT project.
project management methodology
Systems and techniques designed to encourage successful projects and avoid project failure.
project management software
Software to help plan, manage, and guide the process of IT project development.
project manager
Person with overall responsibility for an IT project.
project plan
Clear definition of the goals, scope, and schedule of a proposed IT project.
prototype interface
Early version of a user interface to get feedback about its effectiveness.
prototypes
An early version of a project, designed to get feedback from the client and users.
quality assurance methods
In project development, used to ensure the whole development team are following standardised best practises.
quality control processes
Processes to ensure code produced by programmers followed accepted best practices.
regression testing
Testing to ensuring changes to an IT system did not break any previously working functionality.
relationships
The links between separate items of data.
requirements specification
Clear list of the functional and non-functional requirements for a proposed IT project.
scope
Clear definition of the boundaries of an IT project.
SDLC
The stages in the life time of an IT system, from its first proposal, through its design and creation, to its eventual phasing out.
software testers
People who perform alpha, beta, and acceptance testing.
source code
Instructions that make up the software, entered by the programmer using a programming language.
SSADM
Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method. A project management methodology.
support
Staff who help users with problems they encounter while using an IT system.
support staff
Staff who train users and help them with problems as they occur
SWOT
Analysis method sometimes used when creating a business case.
system context diagram
High level DFD of a system.
System development lifecycle
The stages in the life time of an IT system, from its first proposal, through its design and creation, to its eventual phasing out.
technical documentation
Documentation intended for programmers and developers of an IT system.
test plan
List of all tests and test data that should be tried with a system.
training
Ensuring that users will be able to work with a new IT system.
tutorial
A document which explains how to perform key tasks, step by step.
user acceptance testing
Tests performed by a client before formally accepting an IT system from the developers.
user acceptance testing
Testing performed by the client and users as part of the handover process.
user documentation
Documentation intended for users of an IT system, helping them understand and use it.
user interface
The part of a system that allows a user to interact with it.
user manual
A document which explains to users how to use a computer system.
virtual machine
A software implementation of a computer system, allowing one physical computer to run several "virtual computers", each with their own independent operating system and application software.
waterfall development
Development method that focuses on completing each stage of the SDLC for the entire project before moving onto the next.