65 terms

ITGS Chapter 16 - Artificial Intelligence and Robotics (HL only)

Key terms for the ITGS Higher Level topic "Artificial Intelligence and Robotics". These terms relate to chapter 16 of the textbook (www.itgstextbook.com).
STUDY
PLAY
AI
Creating a system that produces results comparable to human intelligence.
Artificial Intelligence
Creating a system that produces results comparable to human intelligence.
Artificial Neural Network
AI system that attempts to mimic the neurons and synapses in the human brain.
Boolean logic
Logic in which clauses can have one of two states - such as yes or no, true or false.
brute force searching
AI technique that considers all possible solutions, looking for the best.
CAPTCHA
System designed to create text that is unreadable to a computer but understandable to a person, to reduce spam.
chaining
Use of logical statements to come to a conclusion.
Chinese Room, the
Thought experiment dealing with the idea of knowledge.
computational intelligence
Approach that tries to create systems that think and learn in the same way humans do.
confidence interval
Level of certainty in an answer a pattern recognition system provides.
expert system shell
Software used to create expert systems.
expert systems
Software designed to make the same decisions that a human expert would, in a given knowledge domain.
feedback loop
Use of previous answers (right or wrong) to improve the decision making process next time.
fuzzy logic
Logic in which items can have multiple values. Used in AI.
fuzzy set theory
System in which items can be partial or complete members of a set. Used in AI.
hand writing recognition
System to recognise human writing and convert it to text.
heuristics
General rules for performing a task, used to improve the perform of searching algorithms in AI applications.
IF-THEN rule
Rule used by the inference engine in an expert system to describe the relationship between key concepts.
inference engine
Part of an expert system which attempts to relate the users input with knowledge stored in the knowledge base.
inference rule
Rule used by the inference engine in an expert system to describe the relationship between key concepts.
knowledge base
Area of an expert system where all facts about the knowledge domain are stored.
knowledge domain
Area of knowledge in which an expert system specialises.
knowledge engineer
Programmer responsible for entering expert knowledge into an expert system.
knowledge representation
Different techniques for representing concepts and their relationships inside a computer system.
logic
Rule used by the inference engine in an expert system to describe the relationship between key concepts.
machine learning
Technique for making a computer produce better results by learning from past experiences.
machine translation
Technique for automatically translating one human language into another.
natural language processing
Techniques for processing human languages to enable a computer to understand their meaning.
neural networks
AI technique that tries to simulate the human brain, using neurons and synapses.
pattern recognition
Computational Intelligence technique where computers are trained on examples and learn to recognise similarities between them.
Searching
AI technique that considers all possible solutions, looking for the best.
set theory
Mathematical theory used in some AI techniques.
speech recognition
Computer system that can process spoken language and understand its meaning.
training data
Example data used in a pattern recognition system.
Turing test
Proposed test to see if a computer is intelligent or not.
user interface
Part of an expert system that accepts users inputs and presents answers.
android
Robot designed to look like a human, with lifelike skin and other features.
autonomous
Robot which operates without human intervention.
camera
Common input device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
clamps
Common output device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
claws
Common output device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
computer vision
Techniques to let computers and robots see and understand the world around them.
heat sensor
Common input device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
humanoid
Robot designed generally like a human - bipedal, upright, and arms, and a head.
humidity sensor
Common input device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
infrared sensor
Common input device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
lasers
Common input device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
light sensor
Common input device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
lights
Common output device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
magnetism sensor
Common input device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
motors
Common output device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
pH sensor
Common input device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
pressure sensor
Common input device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
proximity sensor
Common input device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
radar
Common input device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
relays
Common output device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
robot
Computerised device that performs manual or physical tasks, either autonomously or under remote control.
robotic arm
Common output device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
robotic fingers
Common output device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
sensors
Input devices used to measure physical traits, such as sound, heat, or light.
sirens
Common input device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
sound sensor
Common input device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
speakers
Common output device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
tracks
Common output device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)
wheels
Common output device in robotics. (There are many, so 'override' the answer if you get any correct one)