US History Chapters 14-17
Terms in this set (59)
1849. "Known Nothing Party" because of its secretiveness. It was formed by nativists who wanted restrictions on immigration and naturalization and laws authorizing the deportation of alien paupers.
"Father of the Factory System" in America. Skilled British mechanic who memorized the plans for the textile machinery and escaped in disguise to the US. 1791- brought 1st efficient American machinery for spinning cotton thread.
1793. Invented by Eli Whitney. One person could clean 50 pounds of short-staple cotton per day. Value of southern land in south and demand for slaves increased.
1798, Eli Whitney. Idea of having the parts made by a machine so they were identical (easy to replace). Basis of modern mass-production assembly-lines. Factories flourished in north.
Invented the sewing machine in 1846. Became foundation of the ready-made clothing industry that developed around the Civil War.
Encouraged investments in companies by limiting how much the investor could lose if the company was sued or went bankrupt. Investor could only lose his own share of the corporations stock.
Invented by Samuel Morse in 1844. Strung a wire from Washington, D.C. to Baltimore and tapped message: "What hath God wrought".
Lowell Textile Mill
In Lowell, MA. Mills made in the 1820's and was the most important textile center by 1836. 17,000 inhabitants but only hired single women and worked until they got married. By 1830, 70% of Lowell's workforce was women. Shifts ran 12 hours a day, 6 days a week. Only men could be supervisors.
invented by John Deere in 1837. Able to break the thinly matted Western soil but light enough to be pulled by horses.
Mechanical mower. Invented by Cyrus McCormick in the 1830's. Let one person do the work of 5 sickles and scythes. Made farmers buy more acres for production and saw subsistence farming give way to cash-crop agriculture.
Broad, hard surfaced highway built by a private company in the 1790's. Ran 62 miles from Philly to Lancaster. Drivers were stopped by sharp pikes at a tollgate which were turned aside when the driver paid the toll. Returned as high as 15% annual dividends to stockholders.
Also known as the Cumberland Road. Road the federal government began to built in 1811 in Cumberland, MD. Reached Vandalia, IL (591 mi to the west n 1839).
Built the steamboat the Clermont in 1807. Churned 150 mi from NYC up the Hudson to Albany in 32 hours. Meant that boats could travel upriver against the current.
Canal built by New Yorkers to link the Great Lakes with the Hudson River. Governor DeWitt Clinton supported the project. Project began in 1817 and was completed in 1825. 363 miles. Cost of shipping a ton of grain from Buffalo to NYC fell from $100 to $5. Time of shipping went from 20 to 6 days. Value of land along the route skyrocketed (Rochester and Syracuse). Industry in NY boomed.
Series of the 19th century transportation innovations including turnpikes, steamboats, canals, and railroads. Linked local and regional markets and created a national economy. Offset the "natural" flow of trade on the interior rivers.
Trasformation of a subsistence economy of scattered farms and tiny workshops into a national network of industry and commerce.
Second Great Awakening
Series of religious revivals that began around 1800. Camp meetings include as many as 25,000 people who would gather for several days to listen to an itinerant preacher deliver a gospel stressing sin and hellfire. Congregants could find themselves in fits of religious ecstasy in which they rolled, danced, barked, and spoke in tongues. Encouraged a spirit o evangelicalism that led to prison reform, the women's movement, the temperance cause, and abolitionism.
Charles G Finney
Greatest of the revival preachers. Led massive revivals in Rochester and NYC in 1830 and 1831. Estimated to have converted over 500,000 people. Believed in performance and exciting preaching. Would throw imaginary bricks at the devil. Believed people could choose good over evil and eradicate sin. Did not believe in predestination. The saved had to reform society. Became president of Oberlin College in Ohio.
Joseph Smith. Resident of the Burned-Over District who in 1830 claimed he had received golden plated from an angel on which are written the Book of Mormon. Launched the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Opposed in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Their cooperative nature went against individualism and free enterprise, they voted as a unit, polygamy, and openly drilled their militia for defensive purposes. Smith and his brother are murdered by a mob in Carthage Illinois in 1844. Brigham Young took over the Church. Led the followers to Great Salt Lake, then Mexico.
Also known as Adventists. Began in the Burned-Over District in the 1830s. Started by William Miller who believed the Bible meant that Christ would return to earth of Oct 22, 1844.
Secretary of the MA Board of Education. He campaigned for more and better schoolhouses, longer school terms, high pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum.
William H. McGuffey
Wrote grade-school readers first published in the 1830s that sold 122 million copies. Taught reading, morality, patriotism, and idealism.
Established the Troy Female Seminary in NY, a secondary school for women. 1821.
Established a school for women, Mount Holyoke Seminary (later a collegeO in MA in 1837.
New England teacher and author who traveled 60,000 miles in 8 years examining insanity and asylums. Petitioned the MA legislature in 1842 for improved conditions and asserted that the demented were not willfully perverse but mentally ill.
American Temperance Society
Organization formed in Boston in 1826 that spread to over thousand local groups. Members implored drinkers to sign a temperance pledge and used pics, pamphlets, and lecturers, some of whom were reformed drinkers.
Maine Law of 1851
Law sponsored by Dow that prohibited the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor. By 1857, a dozen Northern states had followed suit.
Cult of Domesticity
The idea that the home and family was the centerpiece of a woman's world. While this gave women an important role, it could as be a gilded cage, with women not welcome in the public world of men.
Seneca Falls Convention
1848. Convention for women's equality in Ny. Its "Declaration of Sentiments" declared that "all men and women are created equal". Demanded that women be allowed to vote.
Indiana 1824. Established by Scottish industrialist Robert Owen who wanted to improve on the misery of cotton mill workers by creating small towns with good schools and healthy work and without unemployment, poverty, and vice. Failed in three years.
1841. Started in MA by about 20 intellectual committed to Transcendentalism and "plain living and high thinking." Collapsed in debt.
John Humphrey Noyes believed in perfectionism- final conversion would lead to absolute perfection and complete release from sin. He rejected marriage, believed that among the perfect all men and women belonged equally to each other. 1848: Noyes and 51 followers founded a perfectionist community at Onida, NY. Sexual abstinence for most men (only spiritually advanced men could father children aka Noyes). Communal child rearing, gender work equality, no competition in work or play, work in manufacturing.
Communities from Maine to NY to Kentucky. Perfectionism. Communal property. Trying to bring about the millennial kingdom of heaven. Absolute celibacy. Founded by Mother Ann Lee, who was the female counterpart to the masculine Christ. Worship included frenetic dancing intended to shake out sin through the fingertips. Gender equality and simplicity.
Intellectual movement that began in the 1830s in MA. Rejected John Locke's empiricist theory that all knowledge comes to the mind through the senses, feeling that truth "transcends" the senses and cannot be found by observation alone. Every person has an inner light that can illuminate the highest truth. Believed in individualism and self-reliance.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Most famous transcendentalist. His address The American Scholar (1837) urged American writers to throw off European traditions and use American ones. Stressed self-reliance, self-improvement, self-confidence, optimism, and freedom. Critic of slavery.
Henry David Thoreau
Refused to pay MA poll tax and was jailed for a night because the government supported slavery. Wrote Walden in 1854. Lived 2 years at Walden Pond near Concord, MAWrote "On the Duty of Civil Disobedience" in 1849. Inspired Gandhi and Martin Luther Kind Jr.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852. Talked about brutality of slavery, influencing Northern opinion. Over 300,000 thousands copies sold.
Nat Turner Revolt
1831 in Southampton Country, VA. Turner had visions of white and black spirits battling each other, and he believed Hod intended him to achieve some great purpose. Turner and his followers killed his master and family. He reported his master was kind and confidence in Turner. 55 whites were killed before the rebellion was put down. Twice as many African Americans were killed. Turner was executed. Southern whites feared there were Nat Turners in every family.
Gabriel Prosser was a slave who had a plan to arm 1,000 other slaves near Richmond. Plan failed because heavy rain delayed it enough for some house servants top sound the alarm. 25 suspects hung, including Gabriel.
American Colonization Society
1817. Founded to transport freed blacks back to Africa. It established the Republic of Liberia in 1822 as the place to send them. Its capital, Monrovia, was named for president James Monroe. 15,000 freed blacks were sent there. Most blacks did not wish to leave the US
1839. A Spanish slave ship in which slaves rebelled and seized command off the coast of Cuba. They tried to sail back to Africa but were driven ashore on Long Island, NY. John Quincy Adams argued their case before the supreme court and they were freed (to the British colony of Sierra Leone in West Africa).
Theodore Dwight Weld
Had been evangelized by Charles G. Finney in the 1820s. He preached against slavery across the Old Northwest. Wrote the pamphlet "American Slavery as it is" in 1839. Influenced Uncle Tom's Cabin.
William Lloyd Garrison
Created the Liberator in 1831. Anti-slavery newspaper published in Boston. Insisted that he would not tolerate slavery in any form. Branded as a terrorist and inciter of murder because the Liberator appeared the same time as Nat Turner's rebellion.
American Anti-Slavery Society
1833. Organization founded by Garrison and other abolitionists such as Phillips. Would not eat can sugar or wear cotton cloth because they were produced by slave labor.
Wrote the newspaper "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World" in 1829. Advocated bloody end to white supremacy.
Freed black in NY who fought for black emancipation and women's rights.
Former slave who escaped from bondage in 1838. Gave an impromptu speech at an antislavery meeting in MA, lectured the abolitionist cause. Published the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas in 1845.
1836. Forced through the US House of Reps by Southerners that required all antislavery appeals to congress to be tabled without debate. John Quincy Adams led the fight for its repeal in 1844.
Minister and publisher of an abolitionist newspaper in Alton, IL. His printing press was destroyed 4 times and he was killed by a mob.
An American steamship. Carrying supplies to the rebel Canadians across the Niagara River. British force attacked it on the Ny shore and set it on fire. One American died. This incident as an unlawful invasion of American soil, and the US lodged official protests.
1841. British officials in the Bahamas offered asylum to 130 Virginian slaves who had rebelled and captured the American ship 'Creole'. Britain had abolished slavery in 1833 and southerners feared the British Caribbean would become a haven for escaped slaves.
1842. Compromise on the Maine boundary by which US retained 7,000 square miles of the 12,000 square miles in dispute. The British got a Halifax-Québec route that it wanted.
1845. Phrase coined by John L. O'Sullivan, editor of the Democratic Review. America's superior institutions and culture gave it a God-given right to spread its civilization across the continent.
Whig Congressman Abraham Lincoln of Illinois introduced resolutions to Congress requesting information on the precise spot on American soil where American soil had been shed.
John C. Frémont
Captain who captured California, collaborating with American naval officers and local Americans.
Fought across the Rio Grande into Mexico. He won the Battle of Buena Vista in February 1847, his force of 5,000 men was attacked by 20,000 Mexican soldiers.
Commanded the main American expedition, which pushed inland from Veracruz and reached Mexico City in September 1847.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Peace treaty ending the Mexican-American war signed in February 1848. US got title to Texas, US got westward area from Texas to Oregon and the Pacific, including CA (1/2 of Mexico's land area). US would pay Mexico $15 million and US would assume American citizens' claims against Mexico in the amount of $3,250,000.
Law proposed by Pennsylvania representative David Wilmont in 1846 after the war began proposing that slavery not be allowed in any territory gained from Mexico because of the war. It was passed in the House but defeated in the Senate. It was endorsed by the legislature of all but one of the free states.