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90 terms

Kozier Chapter 35 Medications

STUDY
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Absorption
the process by which a drug passes into the bloodstream
Adverse effects
more severe side effects which may justify the discontinuation of a drug
Agonist
a drug that interacts with a receptor to produce a response
Ampule
a small glass container for individual doses of liquid medications
Anaphylactic reaction
a severe allergic reaction usually occurs immediately after the administration of the drug
Bevel
the part of the needle, which is the slanted part at the tip of the needle
Biotransformation
process by which a drug is converted to a less active form; also called detoxification
Brand name
the name given by the drug manufacturer
Buccal
pertaining to the cheek
Chemical name
the name by which a chemist knows the drug; describes the constituents of the drug precisely
Cumulative effect
the increasing response to repeated doses of a drug that occurs when the rate of administration exceeds the rate of metabolism or excretion
Desired effect
see therapeutic effect
Detoxification
a process by which a drug is converted to a less active form
Distribution
the transportation of a drug from its site of absorption to its site of action
Drug
a chemical compound taken for disease prevention, diagnosis, cure, or relief or to affect the structure or function of the body
Drug abuse
excessive intake of a substance either continually or periodically
Drug allergy
an immunologic reaction to a drug
Drug dependence
inability to keep the intake of a drug or substance under control
Drug habituation
a mild form of psychologic dependence on a drug
Drug half-life
the time required for the elimination process to reduce the concentration of the drug to one half what it was at initial administration
Drug interaction
the beneficial or harmful interaction of one drug with another drug
Drug polymorphism
a client's variation in response to a drug is influenced by age, gender, size, and body composition
Drug tolerance
a condition in which successive increases in the dosage of a drug are required to maintain a given therapeutic effect
Drug toxicity
the quality of a drug that exerts a deleterious effect on an organism or tissue
Elimination half-life
see drug half-life
Epidural
commonly used routes for parenteral administration into the epidural space
Excretion
elimination of a waste product produced by the body cells from the body
Gastrostomy tube
a tube which is surgically placed directly into the client's stomach and provides another route for administering nutrition and medications
Gauge
diameter of the shaft
Generic name
a drug name not protected by trademark and usually describing the chemical structure of the drug
Hub
the part of the needle, which fits onto the syringe
Hypodermic
under the skin
Hypodermic syringe
a type of syringe that comes in 2-, 2.5-, and 3-mL sizes; the syringe usually has two scales marked on it: the minim and the milliliter
Iatrogenic disease
disease caused unintentionally by medical therapy
Idiosyncratic effect
a different, unexpected or individual effect from the normal one usually expected from a medication; the occurrence of unpredictable and unexplainable symptoms
Illicit drugs
drugs that are sold illegally; street drugs
Inhibiting effect
the decreased effect of one or both drugs
Insulin syringe
similar to a hypodermic syringe, but the scale is specially designed for insulin: a 100-unit calibrated scale intended for use with U-100 insulin
Intradermal
under the epidermis (into the dermis)
Intradermal injection
the administration of a drug into the dermal layer of the skin just beneath the epidermis
Intramuscular
into the muscle
Intramuscular injection
injections into muscle tissue are absorbed more quickly than subcutaneous injections because of the greater blood supply to the body muscles
Intraspinal
into the spinal cord
Intrathecal
see Intraspinal
Intravenous
within a vein
Lavage
an irrigation or washing of a body organ, such as the stomach
Medication
a substance administered for the diagnosis, cure, treatment, relief of a symptom, or prevention of disease
Metabolism
the sum of all the physical and chemical processes by which living substance is formed and maintained and by which energy is made available for use by the organism
Metabolites
end products or enzymes
Metered-dose inhaler (MDI)
a handheld nebulizer, which is a pressurized container of medication that can be used by the client to release the medication through a mouthpiece
Minim
the basic unit of measure in the apothecary system, equal to 0.0616 mL
Nasogastric tube
a tube is inserted by way of the nasopharynx and is placed into the client's stomach for the purpose of feeding the client or to remove gastric secretions
NPO
Latin word nil per os "nothing by mouth"
Official name
the name under which a drug is listed in one of the official publications (e.g., the United States Pharmacopeia)
Onset of action
the time after administration when the body initially responds to the drug
Ophthalmic
referring to the eye
Oral
referring to the mouth
Otic
referring to the ear
Parenteral
drug administration occurring outside the alimentary tract; injected into the body through some route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intramuscularly)
Peak plasma level
the concentration of a drug in the blood plasma that occurs when the elimination rate equals the rate of absorption
Percutaneous
the route of absorption of topical medications through the skin
Pharmacist
a person licensed to prepare and dispense drugs and prescriptions
Pharmacodynamics
the process by which a drug alters cell physiology
Pharmacokinetics
the study of the absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion of drugs
Pharmacology
the scientific study of the actions of drugs on living animals and humans
Pharmacopoeia
a book containing a list of drug products used in medicine, including their descriptions and formulas
Pharmacy
the art of preparing, compounding, and dispensing drugs; also refers to the place where drugs are prepared and dispensed
Physiologic dependence
biochemical changes occurring in the body as a result of excessive use of a drug
Plateau
a maintained concentration of a drug in the plasma during a series of scheduled doses
Potentiating effect
the increased effect of one or both drugs
Prefilled unit-dose system
injectable medications that are disposable and are available as (a) prefilled syringes ready for use or (b) prefilled sterile cartridges and needles that require the attachment of a reusable holder (injection system) before use
Prescription
the written direction for the preparation and administration of a drug
Prn order
as needed order, permits the nurse to give a medication when, in the nurse's judgment, the client requires it
Psychologic dependence
a state of emotional reliance on a drug to maintain one's well-being; a feeling of need or craving for a drug
Reconstitution
the technique of adding a solvent to a powdered drug to prepare it for injection
Shaft
the part of the needle, which is attached to the hub
Side effect
the secondary effect of a drug that is unintended; usually predictable and may be either harmless or potentially harmful
Single order
common medication order which "one-time order" is for medication to be given once at a specified time
Specific antagonists
drugs that have no special pharmacologic action of their own but that inhibit or prevent the action of an agonist
Stat order
common medication order which indicates that the medication is to be given immediately and only once
Subcutaneous
beneath the layers of the skin, hypodermic
Sublingual
under the tongue
Synergistic effect
see Potentiating effect
Therapeutic effect
the primary effect intended of a drug; reason the drug is prescribed
Topical
applied externally (e.g., to the skin or mucous membranes)
Trademark
see Brand name
Transdermal patch
a particular type of topical or dermatologic medication delivery system
Tuberculin syringe
originally designed to administer tuberculin; a narrow syringe, calibrated in tenths and hundredths of a milliliter (up to 1 mL) on one scale and in sixteenths of a minim (up to 1 minim) on the other scale
Vial
a glass medication container with a sealed rubber cap, for single or multiple doses
Volume control infusion set
small fluid containers (100 to 150 mL in size) attached below the primary infusion container so that the medication is administered through the client's IV line