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29 terms

World History Chapter 17: The Enlightenment and the American Revolution

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natural law
rules discoverable by reason
Thomas Hobbes
he outlined his ideas in Leviathan. He argued that people were naturally cruel, greedy, and slefish.
social contract
an agreement by which they gave up their freedom for an orginized society
John Locke
In TWO TREATIES OF GOVERNMENT, he argues that people formed governments to protect their natural rights.
natural rights
rights that belonged to all humans from birth
philosophes
believed that the use of reason could lead to reforms of government, law, and society.
Mantesquieu
published The Spirit of the Laws, he felt the best way to protect liberty was to divide the various functions and powers of government amoung three branches:legislative, executive, and judicial.
Voltaire
used biting wit as a weapon to expose the abuses of his day. he targeted corrupt officals and idle aristocrats.
Diderot
worked for years to produce a 28-volume set of books called the encyclopedia.
Rousseau
believed that people in their natural state were basically good.
laissez faire
policy in which allowed buisness to operate with little or no government interference
Adam Smith
in THE WEALTH OF Nation, he argued that the free market should be allowed to regulate buisness activity.
censorship
restricing access to ideas and information
salons
informal gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas.
baroque
huge, colorful, full of excitement paintings
rococo
lighter, elegant, and charming style of painting.
enlightened despots
absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change.
Fredrick the Great
reduced use of torture and allow free press. religious tolerance.
catherine the Great
believed in the Enlightenment ideas of equality and liberty. abolished torture and established religious tolerance.
Joseph II
traveled in disguise amoung his subjects to learn of their problems. he supported religious equality for Protestants and Jews in his Catholic Empire.
George III
wanted to end whig domination, choose his own ministers, dissolve the cabinet system , and make parliment follow his will.
Stamp Act
imposed taxes on items such as newspapers and pamphlets.
George Washington
one of those who met in Philidelphia in a continental Congress. He was a virginian planter and soldier
Thomas jefferson
principle auther of the Decleration of Independence
popular sovereignty
states that all government power comes from the people
Yorktown, Virginia
the french fleet blockaded the Chesapeake Bay, which enabled Washington to force the surrencer of a british army here.
Treaty of Paris
ended the war. British recognized the independence of the United States of America.
James Madison & Benjamin Franklin
When the ariticles of Confederation proved to be too weak to rule the United States of America effectively, these men gathered in philadelphia to adress the problem.
federal republic
divided tbetween the federal, or national, government and the states.