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natural law

rules discoverable by reason

Thomas Hobbes

he outlined his ideas in Leviathan. He argued that people were naturally cruel, greedy, and slefish.

social contract

an agreement by which they gave up their freedom for an orginized society

John Locke

In TWO TREATIES OF GOVERNMENT, he argues that people formed governments to protect their natural rights.

natural rights

rights that belonged to all humans from birth


believed that the use of reason could lead to reforms of government, law, and society.


published The Spirit of the Laws, he felt the best way to protect liberty was to divide the various functions and powers of government amoung three branches:legislative, executive, and judicial.


used biting wit as a weapon to expose the abuses of his day. he targeted corrupt officals and idle aristocrats.


worked for years to produce a 28-volume set of books called the encyclopedia.


believed that people in their natural state were basically good.

laissez faire

policy in which allowed buisness to operate with little or no government interference

Adam Smith

in THE WEALTH OF Nation, he argued that the free market should be allowed to regulate buisness activity.


restricing access to ideas and information


informal gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas.


huge, colorful, full of excitement paintings


lighter, elegant, and charming style of painting.

enlightened despots

absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change.

Fredrick the Great

reduced use of torture and allow free press. religious tolerance.

catherine the Great

believed in the Enlightenment ideas of equality and liberty. abolished torture and established religious tolerance.

Joseph II

traveled in disguise amoung his subjects to learn of their problems. he supported religious equality for Protestants and Jews in his Catholic Empire.

George III

wanted to end whig domination, choose his own ministers, dissolve the cabinet system , and make parliment follow his will.

Stamp Act

imposed taxes on items such as newspapers and pamphlets.

George Washington

one of those who met in Philidelphia in a continental Congress. He was a virginian planter and soldier

Thomas jefferson

principle auther of the Decleration of Independence

popular sovereignty

states that all government power comes from the people

Yorktown, Virginia

the french fleet blockaded the Chesapeake Bay, which enabled Washington to force the surrencer of a british army here.

Treaty of Paris

ended the war. British recognized the independence of the United States of America.

James Madison & Benjamin Franklin

When the ariticles of Confederation proved to be too weak to rule the United States of America effectively, these men gathered in philadelphia to adress the problem.

federal republic

divided tbetween the federal, or national, government and the states.

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