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changing the format of new information as it is being stored in memory


process of finding information previously stored in memory

retrieval cue

stimulus that provides guidance about where to look for a piece of information in long term memory


focusing on mental processing on particular stimuli


cognitive process in which information is repeated over and over within a short timeframe (typically a few minutes or less) as a possible way of learning and remembering it.


cognitive process in which learners make connections among various pieces of information they need to learn (examples: forming categories, identifying hierarchies, determining cause-and-effect relationships)

meaningful learning

cognitive process in which learners relate new information to things they already know.


cognitive process in which learners embellish on new information based on what they already know.




memory aid or trick designed to help learn and remember one or more specific pieces of information.

key word method

mnemonic technique in which an association is made between two ideas by forming a visual image of one or more concrete objects(keywords) that either sound similar to or symbolically represent those ideas.

verbal mediation

word of phrase that forms a logical connection, or bridge, between two pieces of information

superimposed meaningful structure

familiar shape, word, sentence, poem, or story imposed on information to facilitate recall

why do we forget

failure to store or consolidate information in long term memory, decay, inadequate search of long term memory, interference, reconstruction error


gradual weakening of information stored in long term memory, especially if the information is used infrequently.

failure to store

or consolidation, process in which newly acquired knowledge is firmed up in the brain, often takes several hours sometimes even longer.


phenomenon whereby something stored in long term memory inhibits one's ability to remember something else correctly.

reconstruction error

construction of a logical but incorrect memory by combining information retrieved from one's long term memory with one's general knowledge and beliefs about the world.

individual constructivism

theoretical perspective that focuses on how people as individuals construct meaning from their experiences

social constructivism

theoretical perspective that focuses on peoples collective efforts to impose meaning on the world.


referring to the relationships between words and meanings


set of rules that one uses. often unconsciously, to put words together in a sentence


overly broad view of the objects or events that a concept includes


overly narrow view of the objects or events that a concept includes.


to burden excessively with rules and regulations


mental grouping of objects or events that have something in common

example of positive instance of a concept

any object that is in a group, all similar objects

negative instance of a concept

not in a group and not similar

correlational feature


defining feature


confirmation bias

tendency to seek information that confirms, rather that discredits, current beliefs.


belief that is inconsistent with commonly accepted and well validated explanations of phenomena or events.


knowledge and beliefs about the nature of human cognitive process (including ones own) as well as conscious attempts to engage in behaviors and thought processes that increase learning and memory

comprehension monitoring

process of checking oneself to verify understanding and memory of newly acquired information.

illusion of knowledge

thinking that you know something that you don't

transfer of knowledge


negative transfer

phenomenon in which something learned at one time interferes with learning or performance at a later time.

positive transfer

phenomenon in which something learned at one time facilitates learning or performance at a later time.

ill defined problems

problem in which the desired goal is unclear, some information needed to solve the problem is missing, and or several possible solutions to the problem exist.

well defined problems

problem in which the goal is clearly defined, all the information needed to solve the problem is present and only one correct answer exists.

what is mental set and its relations with problem solving

mental set- inclination to encode a problem in a way that excludes potential solutions, when problem solving you want to eliminate all the wrong answers so you can see the possible right answers

examples of creative thinking

brainstorming, concept web, word webs

examples of critical thinking

If you learn that a supervisor's use of humor is correlated with how much an employee likes his or her job, you would think of more than one explanation for this finding. Moreover, you would conclude that you cannot make causal conclusions from this finding because you are not able to rule out alternative explanations.

classical conditioning

form of learning in which a new involuntary response is acquired as a result of two stimuli being presented at the same time

conditioned stimulus

stimulus that begins to elict a particular response through classical conditioning

unconditional stimulus

stimulus that elicts a particular response without prior learning

conditioned response

response that begins to be elicited by a particular (conditioned) stimulus through classical conditioning

unconditioned response

response that is elicited by a particular (unconditional) stimulus without prior learning


phenomenon in which a person learns a response to a particular stimulus and then makes the same response to a similar stimulus.


gradual disappearance of an acquired response.

operant conditioning

form of learning in which a response either increase or decreases as a result of being followed by either reinforcement or punishment respectively

primary reinforcement

consequence that satisfies a biologically built in need

secondary reinforcement

consequence that becomes reinforcing over time through its association with another reinforcer.

positive reinforcement

consequence that brings about the increase of behavior through the presentation (rather than the removal) of a stimulus

negative reinforcement

consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the removal (rather than the presentation) of a stimulus.

activity reinforcement

allow child to do enjoyable things they like (read a book, go to library or get on the computer if they finish their work)

token economy

a technique in operant conditioning by which desired behaviors receive forms of currency that can be exchanged for rewards

Premack Principle

phenomenon in which learners do less-preferred activities in order to engage in more-preferred activities

intrinsic reinforcement

reinforcement provided by the mere act of performing a behavior; the performance of the behavior is itself reinforcing

contingency contract

formal agreement between teacher and student that identifies behaviors the student will exhibit and the reinforcers that will follow

group contingency

situation in which everyone in a group must make a particular response before reinforcement occurs

discrimination learning

the process by which animals or people learn to make different responses to different stimuli.

behavioral momentum

increased tendency for a learner to make a particular response immediately after making similar responses


use of a verbal or nonverbal signal to indicate that a certain behavior is desired or that a certain behavior should stop.

reinforcement of incompatible behavior

eliminate a designated behavior by strengthening other behaviors that are incompatible with it.
Pamela is constantly late getting home for supper. Her parents could punish her for her tardiness; and if punishment is effective, she will stop being late. On the other hand, her parents could take the opposite course of action and reward her for getting home on time. If the reward is effective, Pamela will develop the habit of arriving on time for supper; and since being on time is the opposite of being late, Pamela's problem of lateness thus could be eliminated without punishment. (Whether or not Pamela's parents would actually want to choose this second course of action would depend on several factors which will be discussed later in this section.)

continuous reinforcement

reinforcement of a response every time it occurs

intermittent reinforcement

reinforcement of a response only occasionally, with some occurrences of the response not being reinforced.

compare negative reinforcement and punishment

negative reinforcement- consequence that brings about the increase of behavior through the removal (rather than the presentation) of a stimulus.
Punishment- consequence (stimulus) that decreases the frequency of the response it follows.

presentation punishment

punishment involving presentation of a new stimulus, presumably one a learner finds unpleasant.

removal punishment

punishment involving the removal of an existing stimulus, presumably one a learner doesn't want to lose.


consequence for misbehavior in which a student is placed in a dull, boring situation with no opportunity for reinforcement or social interaction.

response cost

loss of either a previously earned reinforcer or of an opportunity to obtain reinforcement.

logical consequence

consequence that follows naturally or logically from a student's misbehavior.

in school suspension

consequence for misbehaving in which a student is placed in a quiet, boring room within the school building, typically to do schoolwork under close adult supervision.


process of reinforcing successively closer and closer approximations to a desired terminal behavior.

Primary reinforcer

food clothes water oxygen

secondary reinforcer


extrinsic reinforcer


intrinsic reinforcer

read an entire book front to back without putting it down for enjoyment

concrete reinforcers

is an actual object

social reinforcers

a gesture or sign

premack principle

adhd children will sit still during a lesson because they know they will be rewarded with getting to go outside and play because of their good behavior

positive reinforcement

making a good grade on an assignment that you turned in

negative reinforcement

removal of unpleasant stimulus

unpleasant punishment

presented punishment (spanking)

removal punishment

take something away from the child (TV, car credit card, cell phone)

A positive reinforcement will make the child what?

continue with the good behavior

verbal mediation

Quito is the capital of Ecuador, Mosquitoes are at the equator

keyword method

Augusta is the capital of Maine, picture a gust of wind blowing through a horse's mane

superimposed meaningful structure

the shape of Italy--------a boot

factors that affect retrieval

multiple connections with existing knowledge and a variety of contexts, distinctiveness, emotional overtones, regular practice, relevant retrieval cues and wait time

five general categories of students with special needs

students with specific cognitive or academic difficulties such as learning disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, students with social or behavioral problems such as emotional or behavioral disorders and autism spectrum disorder, students with general delays in cognitive and social functioning, students with physical or sensory challenges such as chronic health conditions visual impairments and hearing loss, students with advanced cognitive development

distributed cognition

they must clarify and organize their ideas well enough to explain and justify the ideas, they tend to elaborate on what they have learned for example by drawing inferences generating hypotheses and formulating questions to be answered, they are exposed to the views of others who may have more accurate understandings, they can model effective ways of thinking about and studying academic subject matter for one another, they may discover flaws and inconsistencies in their own thinking thereby identifying gaps in their understanding

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