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93 terms

STUDY GUIDE

STUDY
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encoding
changing the format of new information as it is being stored in memory
retrieving
process of finding information previously stored in memory
retrieval cue
stimulus that provides guidance about where to look for a piece of information in long term memory
attention
focusing on mental processing on particular stimuli
rehearsal
cognitive process in which information is repeated over and over within a short timeframe (typically a few minutes or less) as a possible way of learning and remembering it.
organization
cognitive process in which learners make connections among various pieces of information they need to learn (examples: forming categories, identifying hierarchies, determining cause-and-effect relationships)
meaningful learning
cognitive process in which learners relate new information to things they already know.
elaboration
cognitive process in which learners embellish on new information based on what they already know.
visualization
...
mnemonics
memory aid or trick designed to help learn and remember one or more specific pieces of information.
key word method
mnemonic technique in which an association is made between two ideas by forming a visual image of one or more concrete objects(keywords) that either sound similar to or symbolically represent those ideas.
verbal mediation
word of phrase that forms a logical connection, or bridge, between two pieces of information
superimposed meaningful structure
familiar shape, word, sentence, poem, or story imposed on information to facilitate recall
why do we forget
failure to store or consolidate information in long term memory, decay, inadequate search of long term memory, interference, reconstruction error
decay
gradual weakening of information stored in long term memory, especially if the information is used infrequently.
failure to store
or consolidation, process in which newly acquired knowledge is firmed up in the brain, often takes several hours sometimes even longer.
interference
phenomenon whereby something stored in long term memory inhibits one's ability to remember something else correctly.
reconstruction error
construction of a logical but incorrect memory by combining information retrieved from one's long term memory with one's general knowledge and beliefs about the world.
individual constructivism
theoretical perspective that focuses on how people as individuals construct meaning from their experiences
social constructivism
theoretical perspective that focuses on peoples collective efforts to impose meaning on the world.
semantic
referring to the relationships between words and meanings
syntax
set of rules that one uses. often unconsciously, to put words together in a sentence
over-generalization
overly broad view of the objects or events that a concept includes
under-generalization
overly narrow view of the objects or events that a concept includes.
over-regulation
to burden excessively with rules and regulations
concept
mental grouping of objects or events that have something in common
example of positive instance of a concept
any object that is in a group, all similar objects
negative instance of a concept
not in a group and not similar
correlational feature
...
defining feature
...
confirmation bias
tendency to seek information that confirms, rather that discredits, current beliefs.
misconception
belief that is inconsistent with commonly accepted and well validated explanations of phenomena or events.
meta-cognition
knowledge and beliefs about the nature of human cognitive process (including ones own) as well as conscious attempts to engage in behaviors and thought processes that increase learning and memory
comprehension monitoring
process of checking oneself to verify understanding and memory of newly acquired information.
illusion of knowledge
thinking that you know something that you don't
transfer of knowledge
...
negative transfer
phenomenon in which something learned at one time interferes with learning or performance at a later time.
positive transfer
phenomenon in which something learned at one time facilitates learning or performance at a later time.
ill defined problems
problem in which the desired goal is unclear, some information needed to solve the problem is missing, and or several possible solutions to the problem exist.
well defined problems
problem in which the goal is clearly defined, all the information needed to solve the problem is present and only one correct answer exists.
what is mental set and its relations with problem solving
mental set- inclination to encode a problem in a way that excludes potential solutions, when problem solving you want to eliminate all the wrong answers so you can see the possible right answers
examples of creative thinking
brainstorming, concept web, word webs
examples of critical thinking
If you learn that a supervisor's use of humor is correlated with how much an employee likes his or her job, you would think of more than one explanation for this finding. Moreover, you would conclude that you cannot make causal conclusions from this finding because you are not able to rule out alternative explanations.
classical conditioning
form of learning in which a new involuntary response is acquired as a result of two stimuli being presented at the same time
conditioned stimulus
stimulus that begins to elict a particular response through classical conditioning
unconditional stimulus
stimulus that elicts a particular response without prior learning
conditioned response
response that begins to be elicited by a particular (conditioned) stimulus through classical conditioning
unconditioned response
response that is elicited by a particular (unconditional) stimulus without prior learning
generalization
phenomenon in which a person learns a response to a particular stimulus and then makes the same response to a similar stimulus.
extinction
gradual disappearance of an acquired response.
operant conditioning
form of learning in which a response either increase or decreases as a result of being followed by either reinforcement or punishment respectively
primary reinforcement
consequence that satisfies a biologically built in need
secondary reinforcement
consequence that becomes reinforcing over time through its association with another reinforcer.
positive reinforcement
consequence that brings about the increase of behavior through the presentation (rather than the removal) of a stimulus
negative reinforcement
consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the removal (rather than the presentation) of a stimulus.
activity reinforcement
allow child to do enjoyable things they like (read a book, go to library or get on the computer if they finish their work)
token economy
a technique in operant conditioning by which desired behaviors receive forms of currency that can be exchanged for rewards
Premack Principle
phenomenon in which learners do less-preferred activities in order to engage in more-preferred activities
intrinsic reinforcement
reinforcement provided by the mere act of performing a behavior; the performance of the behavior is itself reinforcing
contingency contract
formal agreement between teacher and student that identifies behaviors the student will exhibit and the reinforcers that will follow
group contingency
situation in which everyone in a group must make a particular response before reinforcement occurs
discrimination learning
the process by which animals or people learn to make different responses to different stimuli.
behavioral momentum
increased tendency for a learner to make a particular response immediately after making similar responses
cueing
use of a verbal or nonverbal signal to indicate that a certain behavior is desired or that a certain behavior should stop.
reinforcement of incompatible behavior
eliminate a designated behavior by strengthening other behaviors that are incompatible with it.
Pamela is constantly late getting home for supper. Her parents could punish her for her tardiness; and if punishment is effective, she will stop being late. On the other hand, her parents could take the opposite course of action and reward her for getting home on time. If the reward is effective, Pamela will develop the habit of arriving on time for supper; and since being on time is the opposite of being late, Pamela's problem of lateness thus could be eliminated without punishment. (Whether or not Pamela's parents would actually want to choose this second course of action would depend on several factors which will be discussed later in this section.)
continuous reinforcement
reinforcement of a response every time it occurs
intermittent reinforcement
reinforcement of a response only occasionally, with some occurrences of the response not being reinforced.
compare negative reinforcement and punishment
negative reinforcement- consequence that brings about the increase of behavior through the removal (rather than the presentation) of a stimulus.
Punishment- consequence (stimulus) that decreases the frequency of the response it follows.
presentation punishment
punishment involving presentation of a new stimulus, presumably one a learner finds unpleasant.
removal punishment
punishment involving the removal of an existing stimulus, presumably one a learner doesn't want to lose.
time-out
consequence for misbehavior in which a student is placed in a dull, boring situation with no opportunity for reinforcement or social interaction.
response cost
loss of either a previously earned reinforcer or of an opportunity to obtain reinforcement.
logical consequence
consequence that follows naturally or logically from a student's misbehavior.
in school suspension
consequence for misbehaving in which a student is placed in a quiet, boring room within the school building, typically to do schoolwork under close adult supervision.
Shaping
process of reinforcing successively closer and closer approximations to a desired terminal behavior.
Primary reinforcer
food clothes water oxygen
secondary reinforcer
money
extrinsic reinforcer
praise
intrinsic reinforcer
read an entire book front to back without putting it down for enjoyment
concrete reinforcers
is an actual object
social reinforcers
a gesture or sign
premack principle
adhd children will sit still during a lesson because they know they will be rewarded with getting to go outside and play because of their good behavior
positive reinforcement
making a good grade on an assignment that you turned in
negative reinforcement
removal of unpleasant stimulus
unpleasant punishment
presented punishment (spanking)
removal punishment
take something away from the child (TV, car credit card, cell phone)
A positive reinforcement will make the child what?
continue with the good behavior
verbal mediation
Quito is the capital of Ecuador, Mosquitoes are at the equator
keyword method
Augusta is the capital of Maine, picture a gust of wind blowing through a horse's mane
superimposed meaningful structure
the shape of Italy--------a boot
factors that affect retrieval
multiple connections with existing knowledge and a variety of contexts, distinctiveness, emotional overtones, regular practice, relevant retrieval cues and wait time
five general categories of students with special needs
students with specific cognitive or academic difficulties such as learning disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, students with social or behavioral problems such as emotional or behavioral disorders and autism spectrum disorder, students with general delays in cognitive and social functioning, students with physical or sensory challenges such as chronic health conditions visual impairments and hearing loss, students with advanced cognitive development
distributed cognition
they must clarify and organize their ideas well enough to explain and justify the ideas, they tend to elaborate on what they have learned for example by drawing inferences generating hypotheses and formulating questions to be answered, they are exposed to the views of others who may have more accurate understandings, they can model effective ways of thinking about and studying academic subject matter for one another, they may discover flaws and inconsistencies in their own thinking thereby identifying gaps in their understanding