Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a German foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German-Mexican alliance against the U.S. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.
Wilson sought to instill idealism to inspire Americans to fight. Two goals: 1. "Make the world safe for democracy." 2. "A war to end all wars."
The war goals outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace. Called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms, and a league of nations.
Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929. Promised the American people prosperity, and attempted to first deal with the Great Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.
Headed the War Industries Board, which placed the control of industries into the hands of the federal government. It was a prime example of War Socialism.
In international affairs, reliance on a group of nations or an international organization as protection against aggressors, rather than national self-defense alone.
Eugene V. Debs
President and organizer of the American Railway Union. He organized the Pullman Strike and helped organized the Social Democratic Party. Ran for president against Taft, Roosevelt, and Wilson for the Socialist Party.
Schenck v. United States
A 1919 case in which the Supreme Court affirmed their legality, arguing that freedom of speech could be revoked when such speech posed a "clear and present danger" to the nation.
Treaty of Versailles
Only four of Wilson's original fourteen points were passed. It was condemned by many. Peace treaty at the end of WWI. Penalized Germany. The Big Four decided Germany's fate through this treaty without Germany's attendance.
The act of assembling and putting into readiness for war or other emergency: "mobilization of the troops."
Nickname for the Industrial Workers of the World. They engaged in industrial sabotage due to their poor working conditions. Common in the lumber and fruit industries.
American Federation of Labor
A union for skilled laborers that fought for worker rights in a non-violent way. It provided skilled laborers with a union that was unified, large, and strong.
Short-term loans that individual citizens made to the government. Financed two-thirds of the war's cost.
Henry Cabot Lodge
The perfect candidate to be the chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. But Wilson did not choose him because the two were enemies personally and politically. Tried to "Americanize," "Republicanize," or "senatorialize" the Treaty of Versailles.
Selective Service Act
Law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft.
Head of the American Federation of Labor. Supported the war through smaller, more radical labor organizations, like the Wobblies
American rejection of the League of Nations
Does not want to be a part of the League of Nations because America is isolationist and did not want to get involved in foreign affairs.
The Wilsonian doctrine that each people should have the right to freely choose its own political affiliation and national future, such as independence or incorporation into another nation.
War Industries Board
An agency headed by Bernard Baruch that held feeble power because of America's love of laissez-faire and weak central government.