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white and purple flowers are repeatedly crossed, with sexes alternating in color. (sometimes male purple, sometimes male white). Hybrids are always purple, this proves that?
both male and female contribute equally to genetics
mendels first law of equal segregation
determinants separate when gametes are formed and reassociated randomly into zygotes upon fertilization
mendels second law of segregation
segreation of alleles in TWO DIFFERENT genes is independent of each other
Theory stating that substances present in women and semen directed the development of adult organism
Theory of Epigenesis
theory stating that Substances blended together to yield unique individual with traits from both parents
blending inheritance theory
theory stating that Particles, called gemmules, were collected from all parts of body and became concentrated in germ cells
mendels 5 theories
1-alleles of the same gene are separate
2-Each adult pea has 2 determinants for each character
3- gametes only have 1 determinant for each character
4-Each determinant segregates equally into gametes
5-Union of 2 gametes occurs randomly
breeding cross between P generation (parental generation) organisms that differ in two traits.
how to determine probability of independent events occurring together?
find probability of each event and multiply those probabilities
how to determine probability of mutually exclusive events
sum probabilities of each individual event
phenotype of hybrid is intermediate between homozygous parents; neither trait is fully dominant
complementation study expemplefied?
there are 2 genes responsible for pigment formation. either recessive combo makes pigmentation. showed recessive epistasis
in the coat color gene study in mice, a yellow coat could not be obtained, seemingly disproving mendels predicted ratio. in the end, what was responsible?
the homozygous combo for yellow was lethal
3 things high powered microscopes/special stains revealed
eukaryotic cells contained nuclei, which contained chromosomes, nuclei in egg and sperm were same size w/ size difference due to cytoplasm, nuclei likely contained genetic info,
part of chromosome strand that connects it sister strand/where microtubules attach
centromere aka kinetochore
microtubules attach to chromosomes at kinetochore, chromosomes line up on equatorial plate
2 phases, nuclear membrane reforms, chromosomes decondense, cleavage furrow
telophase and cytokinesis
2 purposes of meiosis
segregates 1 copy of each chromosome into a gamete and mixes genes creating genetically diverse individuals.
t/f during meiosis parent chromosomes are bound together as a pair
false, bound as tetrad during meiosis
t/f genetic diversity is a 2ndary result of recombination. Without it, chromosomes cannot fully separate
in contrast to sex linkage, alleles on autosomes have?
equal inheritance probability for males/females
t/f genes are named after the first mutant (rare phenotype, not necessarily recessive) allele, not the wild type
t/f in fruit flies, sex determined by combination of xy or xx chromosome
false, determined by number of x chromosomes
3 facts of y chromosome
low in # of genes, heterochromatic/highly condensed, SRY gene activated in 7th week of pregnancy
t/f drosophilia females have same amount of X chromosome genes as males
false, they have twice the amount
2 things proved in morgans experiment
genes could be inherited as blocks (linked), alleles could be exchanged in meiosis via recombination
t/f orientation of junction plays a small role determining type of recombination
false, orientation plays critical role in type of recombination
mutations in genes encoding the enzymes in a pathway for synthesis of any nutrient leads to?
method to quickly xfer colonies from one plate to another in which og plate pressed on piece of velvet. other plates are pressed against velvet.
bacterial conjugation is not true sexual reproduction bc?
in sexual reproduction, both partners contribute equally genetic info.
experiment that proved DNA is genetic material/not protein
hershey chase (phage xferred the phosphorus in DNA, not the sulfur in amino acids
5 part eukaryote chromosome structure
double helix, supercoiling, nucleosomes, chromatin fibers, chromosomes
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