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t/f while hybrids are usually uniform in F1, they tend to revert to parental phenotypes in F2


white and purple flowers are repeatedly crossed, with sexes alternating in color. (sometimes male purple, sometimes male white). Hybrids are always purple, this proves that?

both male and female contribute equally to genetics

a pair of crosses that reverse the sexes associated with a genotype

reciprocal cross

mendels first law of equal segregation

determinants separate when gametes are formed and reassociated randomly into zygotes upon fertilization

mendels second law of segregation

segreation of alleles in TWO DIFFERENT genes is independent of each other

Theory stating that substances present in women and semen directed the development of adult organism

Theory of Epigenesis

theory stating that Substances blended together to yield unique individual with traits from both parents

blending inheritance theory

theory stating that Particles, called gemmules, were collected from all parts of body and became concentrated in germ cells


mendels 5 theories

1-alleles of the same gene are separate
2-Each adult pea has 2 determinants for each character
3- gametes only have 1 determinant for each character
4-Each determinant segregates equally into gametes
5-Union of 2 gametes occurs randomly

probability formula

number of times event occurs/number of trials

breeding cross between P generation (parental generation) organisms that differ in two traits.

dihybrid cross

how to determine probability of independent events occurring together?

find probability of each event and multiply those probabilities

how to determine probability of mutually exclusive events

sum probabilities of each individual event

an offspring with parents exhibiting different expressions of the same trait


phenotype of hybrid is intermediate between homozygous parents; neither trait is fully dominant

incomplete dominance

technique used to separate two alleles

gel electrophoresis

F1 hybrids show traits of both parents

co dominance

recessive allele controls expression of other genes WHEN HOMOZYGOUS

recessive epistasis

complementation study expemplefied?

there are 2 genes responsible for pigment formation. either recessive combo makes pigmentation. showed recessive epistasis

many genes are responsible for one trait

polygenic inheritance

genes w/ the same function

duplicate genes

more than 2 alleles for a single gene

multiple alleles

a gene with multiple functions

pleiotropic gene

in the coat color gene study in mice, a yellow coat could not be obtained, seemingly disproving mendels predicted ratio. in the end, what was responsible?

the homozygous combo for yellow was lethal

percentage of individuals with a genotype that exhibit a particular phenotype


the extent to which a phenotype is expressed in an individual


3 things high powered microscopes/special stains revealed

eukaryotic cells contained nuclei, which contained chromosomes, nuclei in egg and sperm were same size w/ size difference due to cytoplasm, nuclei likely contained genetic info,

t/f number of nuclei differ for every cell in an organism

false, number of nuclei constant

t/f number of nuclei in cells are the same in each species

false, number of nuclei vary by species

part of chromosome strand that connects it sister strand/where microtubules attach

centromere aka kinetochore

ends of chromosome strand


a replicated chromosome consists of how many strands


protein DNA complex that composes chromatids

chromatin fibers

t/f eukaryotic dna is both short and circular


DNA would around nucleosomes composed of?

histone proteins

6 phases of mitosis

inter, pro, prometa, meta, ana, telo

longest mitotic phase, centrosome divides and products migrate to polar ends of nucleus


3 phases of interphase

g1, s, g2

spindles form, sister chromatids join at centromeres and chromosomes condense


nuclear membrane fragments/chromosomes migrate middle of spindle


microtubules attach to chromosomes at kinetochore, chromosomes line up on equatorial plate


chromatids separate and migrate to poles


2 phases, nuclear membrane reforms, chromosomes decondense, cleavage furrow

telophase and cytokinesis

egg/sperm cells contain how many chromosomes, adults?


2 purposes of meiosis

segregates 1 copy of each chromosome into a gamete and mixes genes creating genetically diverse individuals.

5 phases of meiosis

prophase I, prometaphase I, meta I, anaphase I, telo I

meiosis phase in which chromatin condense and synapses align chromosomes

prophase I

2 phases in which parental chromosomes break and rejoin at chiasma

prophase I/prometaphase I

phase in which homologous pairs line up on equatorial plate

metaphase I

phase in which homologous pairs separate

anaphase I

phase of cleavage/formation of diploids

telophase I

t/f during meiosis parent chromosomes are bound together as a pair

false, bound as tetrad during meiosis

mobile junction of 4 strands of DNA that facilitate homologous recombination

holiday junction

t/f genetic diversity is a 2ndary result of recombination. Without it, chromosomes cannot fully separate


separation of chromaTIDS happens in meiosis 1 or 2

meiosis 2

precursors to sperm/egg? haploid/diploid?

primary spermatocyte/oocyte, diploid

theory saying genes are located on chromosomes

chromosome theory of inheritance

haploid sperm/egg zygote or gamete


zygote haploid or diploid


the PHENOTYPIC expression of an allele related to the chromosomal sex of the individual

sex linkage

in contrast to sex linkage, alleles on autosomes have?

equal inheritance probability for males/females

t/f genes are named after the first mutant (rare phenotype, not necessarily recessive) allele, not the wild type


t/f in fruit flies, sex determined by combination of xy or xx chromosome

false, determined by number of x chromosomes

sex determining region of Y chromosome

SRY gene

3 facts of y chromosome

low in # of genes, heterochromatic/highly condensed, SRY gene activated in 7th week of pregnancy

t/f by default humans are male

false, female

having only 1 copy of a chromosome

hemizygous (males only)

term for inactive x chromosome

barr body

each x chromosome has an x-inactivation center where what is located


high or low levels of XIST inactivate x chromosome


inactive x chromosome is heterochromatic, meaning?

highly condensed

t/f human females have twice the amount of X chromosome genes

false, one is randomly deactivated

t/f drosophilia females have same amount of X chromosome genes as males

false, they have twice the amount

phenotype expressed only in one sex

sex limited trait

sex determines whether an allele is dominant or recessive

sex-influenced trait

tendency of certain alleles to be inherited together

gene linkage

phenomena that is exception to mendels law of independent assortment

gene linkage

2 things proved in morgans experiment

genes could be inherited as blocks (linked), alleles could be exchanged in meiosis via recombination

breakage of chromosome, separation of genes and exhcnage of genes between chromatids


the distance on the genetic map of a chromosome is the average number of?

crossovers between them

place of a gene on a chromosome


genes or segregating alleles


mutations are used to?

mark/follow a gene

test used to determine if observations are due to chance or are significant

chi square

low p values indicate that observations are significant or change?


% chance unlinked genes have of recombination due to independent assortment


max recombination frequency for genes to be considered linked


occurrence of a first cross over interferes with formation of a second one

positive interference

positive interference affects

double crossovers

t/f orientation of junction plays a small role determining type of recombination

false, orientation plays critical role in type of recombination

fertilized egg aka


bacteria can grow on minimal medium


bacteria can't grow on minimal medium


mutations in genes encoding the enzymes in a pathway for synthesis of any nutrient leads to?


encode enzymes that catalyze DNA movement (Transposition)

insertion elements

antibiotic resistance genes


method to quickly xfer colonies from one plate to another in which og plate pressed on piece of velvet. other plates are pressed against velvet.

replica plating

3 ways bacteria exchange genetic info

transformation, conjugation, transduction

recipient cell acquires genes from free DNA in environment


DNA is xferred from a bacteria donor cell to recipient cell by cell-cell-contact


bacterial dna is xferred from one bacteria to another by phage particle


DNA that allows bacteria to create a sex pilus for conjugation

F factor

bring bacterial cells together so they can exchange genetic info


hayes experiment showed that?

transfer of DNA between bacteria during conjugation was directional

bacterial conjugation is not true sexual reproduction bc?

in sexual reproduction, both partners contribute equally genetic info.

can F-, F+ or Hfr initiate conjugation


Which of 3 bacteria types yields a low frequency xfer/only contains partial info for F factor


t/f gene transfer starts with origin of F factor and ends w/ fertility genes.


theory that genes control protein structure

one gene one enzyme theory

3 parts of dna

phosphate, 5 carbon sugar, nitrogenous base

experiment that proved DNA is genetic material/not protein

hershey chase (phage xferred the phosphorus in DNA, not the sulfur in amino acids

4 dna bases


purine bases


pyrimidine bases


t/f dna strads are anti parallel


AT/GC # bonds

2/3 respectively

t/f hydrogen bonding between bases releases before covalent bond of sugar phosphate backbone


first level of DNA compaction


number of twists in supercoiled dna as compared to relaxed dna

linkage number

enyzyme that regulates supercoiling

topoisomerase/DNA grase

is DNA pos or negatively charged


are histones pos or neg charged


contransduction freq formula


hold chromosome in x shape

scaffold structures

5 part eukaryote chromosome structure

double helix, supercoiling, nucleosomes, chromatin fibers, chromosomes

2 part prokaryote chromosome structure

double hilix, supercoiling

shape of eukaryote coiling


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