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42 terms

Immune system

Marieb chapter 21
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Passive and Active Immunity
Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of specific immunity that use antibodies
Cytotoxic cells
the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells
Natural Killer cells
can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated
Antigen
in clonal selection of B cells, the substance that is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned
Substances capable of triggering the adaptive immune system and provoking an immune system response are called antigens.
True or False
True
The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by:
Vasodilation
Helper T cells
function in the adaptive immune system activation
Adaptive immune system
is antigen-specific, is systemic, and has memory
Chemotaxis
is the directional movement of cells in response to chemicals
perforin
a protein involved with the mechanism of the "lethal hit"
Monoclonal antibodies
pure antibody preparations specific for a single antigenic determinant
Cytokines
are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes to the area
Antibodies
soluble proteins secreted by plasma cells
opsonization
complete proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and roughen its surface, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism.
B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by:
immediately producing antigen-specific antibodies
phagocytes
are part of the second line of defense against microorganisms
immunocompetence
is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it
All of the following are considered innate body defenses except; complement, phagocytosis, antibodies, lysosomes, inflammation.
anitbodies
The process by which neutrophils squeeze through capillary walls in response to inflammatory signals is called:
diapedesis
antibodies released by plasma cells are involved in:
humoral immunity, immediate hypersensitivity reactions, and autoimmune disorders.
Which of the following antibodies can fix complement?
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, or IgM?
IgG and IgM
Which antibody class is abundant in body secretions?
IgA
Small molecules that must bind with large proteins to become immunogenic are called:
haptens
Lymphocytes that develop immunocompetence in the bone marrow are:
B lymphocytes
Cells that can directly attack target cells include:
macrophages, Cytotoxic T cells, and natural killer cells
Which of the following is involved in the activation of a B cell?
antigen, helper T cell, cytokine, or all of the above?
all off these: antigen, helper T cells, and cytokines
The cell type most often invaded by HIV:
helper T cells
complement fixation promotes:
cell lysis, inflammation, opsonization, and chemotaxis of neutrophils and other cells
phagocyte
neutrophils and macrophages
releases histamine
mast cell and basophils
lymphocytes that release perforins
natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells
effector cells of adaptive immunity
cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells
antigen-presenting cells
dendritic cells, B cells, and macrophages
The body's first line of defense:
the skin and mucous membranes
Innate defenses
surface barriers; skin and mucous membranes, and internal defenses; phagocytes, NK cells, inflammation, antimicrobial proteins, and fever.
Adaptive defenses
Humoral immunity, B cells. Cellular immunity, T cells.
inflammatory response beneficial effects
prevents the spread of damaging agents to nearby tissues, disposes of cell debris and pathogens, and sets the stage for repair
Histamine
released by mast cells and basophils, promotes vasodilation of local arteries, increases permeability of local capillaries, promoting exudate formation.
phagocytes
engulf and destroy pathogens that breach surface membrane barriers
leukocytosis
neutrophils enter blood from red bone marrow in response to chemicals called leukocytosis-inducing factors released by injured cells.
margination
Cell adhesion molecules (CAM's) signal "this is the place" to neutrophils which cause them to bind tightly to endothelial cells on the inner walls of capillaries and postcapillary venules.
Complement
a group of plasma proteins that provide a major mechanism for destroying foreign substances in the body