19 terms

MUSIC12-Baroque Terms

Baroque Period
STUDY
PLAY
Baroque Period
1600-1750
End of Baroque Period
1750 - death of Bach
Baroque
Period in Europe when art was gaudy, overly ornate, harsh
*music: strings, keyboard instruments, polyphony
opera seria*
"serious" recitative; acting dialogue ; drama that is sung, a large-scale composition employing vocal soloists, chorus, orchestra, costumes, and scenery ***not religious
aria
song for solo voice expressing an emotional state through its outpouring of melody; found in operas, oratorios, and cantatas *main opera attraction, slow song
recitative
vocal line in an opera, oratorio, or cantata that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech, often serving to lead into an aria *repeated tones, quickly sung
cantata*
Italian/German composition in several movements; usually written for chorus, one or more vocal soloists, and instrumental ensemble ***religious - unorganized operas
oratorio*
English large-scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra, usually set to a narrative text, but without acting, scenery, or costumes ***religious-unorganized operas
Bel Canto
vocal improvisation of a melody adding scales and complexities during instrumental pause
figured bass
composition technique applied under short notice; shortcut in writing harmony *top line is melody; bottom line is bass, no chords, more free-style
concerto*
extended composition for a single instrumental soloist & orchestra; 3 movements: fast, slow, fast *"The Four Seasons"
concerto grosso*
composition for several instrumental solo groups & orchestra; 3 movements: fast, slow, fast
suite*
sets of dance-inspired movements, orchestral, no soloist, same key but differ in tempo, meter, and character
*"Water Music", "Suite No.3 in D Major"
trio sonata*
4 players: keyboardist, 2 soloist, cello
*Baroque composition that has three melodic lines: two high ones, each played by one instrument; and a basso continuo, played by two instruments
terraced dynamics
controlled contrasts of sounds; abrupt alternation between loud and soft dynamic levels **keyboard instrument BACH
ensemble
composition for 3 or more singers
equal temperment
method of compromise in tuning of octaves; adjusting the tones to fit the scale *"The Well Tempered Clavier"
canon - round
layering of music; Bass line->piling of melodies on top of each other, same tones *Canon in D"
fugue
a polyphonic composition based on one main theme:
1)Subject - main theme; in tonic scale
2)Countersubject - different melodic idea appearing with subject
3)Answer - second presentation of theme; in dominant scale - 5 scale steps higher
4)Episodes - transitional sections between presentations of the subjects; lends variety to the composition *Keyboard instrument