56 terms

Unit 4 Connective Tissue

Connective Tissue
Most abundant tissue in the human body.
Connective tissue is made of three things
1. cells
2. Ground Substance
3. Fibers
Ground Substance and Fibers
Consistency of Matrix
may be fluid, semi-fluid, gelatinous, fibrous, or calcified.
embryonic connective tissue, the tissue from which all other CT's eventually arise.
Immature Cell
Mature Cell
immature cartilage cell
mature cartilage cell
Produce the matrix
Immature cells
Maintain the matrix
Mature cells
Cells found in various CT's
Fibroblasts, macrophages, plasma cells, mast cell, adipocytes, leukocytes
secrete fibers and matrix
Phagocytic monocytes
Plasma Cells
antibody-producing B-lymphocytes
fat cells
White blood cells
Function of Ground Substance
supports, binds, and acts as an interface between blood and cells. Provides a medium for exchange of wastes/nutrients by diffusion.
How many fibers are embedded in the matrix between CT cells.
Collagen Fibers
a)composed of the protein collagen
b)tough, resists stretching
c)found in bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments
Elastic Fibers
a)composed of the protein elastin
b)strong and stretches
c)found in skin, blood vessels, and lungs
Reticular Fibers
a)consist of collagen and glycoprotein
b)provide support in the walls of blood vessels
c)form a strong supporting network around flat cells, nerve fibers, and muscle cells
d)help form the framework and basement membranes of many organs
Function of fibers
to provide strength and support for tissue
Types of Connective Tissue
loose CT, dense CT, cartilage, bone, blood
Loose Connective Tissue
fibers are loosely woven and there are MANY cells: areolar CT, adipose tissue, reticular CT
Areloar CT
app=consists of all 3 types of fibers, several types of cells, and semifluid ground substance
loc=found in subcutaneous layer and mucous membrances, and around blood vessels, nerves and organs
fx=strength, support and elasticity
Adipose Tissue
app=consists of adipocytes, singnet ring appearing flat cells
loc=found in subcutaneous layer, around organs and in the yellow marrow of long bones
fx=supports, protects and insulates, and serves as an energy reserve
Reticular Connective Tissue
app=consists of fine interlacing reticular fibers, and reticular cells
loc=found in liver, spleen, and lymph nodes
fx=forms the framework (stroma) of organs and binds together smooth muscle tissue cells
Dense CT
Dense regular CT, Dense irregular CT, Elastic CT
Dense regular CT
app=consists of bundles of collagen fibers and fibroblasts
loc=forms tendons, ligaments, and aponeuroses
fx=provide strong attachment between various structures
Dense irregular CT
app=conists of randomly arranged collagen fibers and a few fibroblasts
loc=dermis of skin, heart valves
fx=provide strength
Elastic CT
app=elastic fibers and fibroblasts
loc=lungs, walls of arteries, trachea, bronchial tubes, true vocal cords and some ligaments
fx=allows stretching of various structures
all cartilage has chondrocytes, no blood vessels, strength is due to collagen fibers
Occur within spaces in the matrix call lacunae
Round white spaces in matrix where chondrocytes occur
3 Major types of cartilage
Hyaline Cartilage, Fibrocartilage, Elastic cartilage
Hyaline Cartilage
most abundant type
app=fine collagen fibers embedded in a gel-type matrix
loc=embryonic skeleton, and the ends of long bones
fx=flexible, provides support, allows movement at joints
app=contains bundles of collagen in the matrix, looks like dirty white ice cube
loc=pubic symphasis, intervertebral discs, and menisci of the knee
fx=support and fusion, and absorbs shocks
Elastic cartilage
app=threadlike network of elastic fibers within the matrix
loc=external ear, auditory tubes, EPIGLOTTIS
fx=gives support, maintains shape, allows flexibility
Epithelial Membrane
spithelial layer of cells plus the underlying connective tissue
Types of Membranes
Mucous, Serous, Cutaneous
Mucous membrane
it lines cavities that open to the exterior, such as the GI tract, vagina, oral, anal
Epithelial layer of the mucous membrane
acts as a barrier to disease organisms
Lamina propria
The connective tissue layer of the mucous membrane, under simple columnar epithelial tissue of small intestine
Serous membrane
closed cavities:
Kidneys are...behind the peritoneum
Serous membrane
lines a body cavity that does NOT open to the exterior and it covers the organs that lie within the cavity. Has two portions
Parietal portion
outside of organ and lining the cavity
Visceral portion
covers the organ
Function of Serious Fluid
reduces friction between organs and the walls of the cavities in which they are located
Pleural fluid
found between the parietal and visceral pericardium of the lungs.
Pericardial fluid
found between the parietal and visceral pericardium of the heart.
Peritoneal Fluid
is found between the parietal and visceral peritoneum of the abdomen