Comparing and Scaling

A ______________________ is a comparison of two quantities expressed with a phrase such as '4 to 1' which means '4 for every 1.' Such comparisons are often written as common fractions and in the special notation 4 : 1.
part-to-part ratio
A ______________________ represents a relationship between one part of a whole and another part of the whole.
part-to-whole ratio
A ______________________ represents a relationship between one part of a whole and the whole.
A ______________________ is a rule containing variables that represent a mathematical relationship. An example is the equation 27 = 3x.
A ______________________ is an equation stating that two ratios are equal.
A comparison of quantities measured in two different units is called a ______________________. It can be thought of as a direct comparison of two sets (20 cookies for 5 children) or as an average amount (4 cookies per child).
rate table
A ______________________ is a table that shows the value of a single item in terms of another item. It is used to show equivalent ratios of the two items.
unit rate
A ______________________ is a rate in which the second number (usually written as the denominator) is 1, or 1 of a quantity. For example, 1.9 children per family, 32 miles per gallon, and 3 flavors of ice cream for every 1 banana split.
constant of proportionality
The constant ratio of two proportional quantities, x and y; usually written as y=kx, where k is the ______________________. For example, in the equation y=1.5x, the ______________________ is 1.5.
The amount earned, based on the percent of total sales. For example, a car salesperson who earns 10% on car sales and sells $60,000 worth of cars would earn a ______________________ of $6,000 (10% of $60,000).
A ______________________ is the amount added to the buying price of an item. It is usually a percent of the buying price.