Science Chapter 7 Vocab (Volcanoes)
Terms in this set (32)
is a weak spot in the crust where molten material, or magma, comes to the surface
is a molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle
ring of fire
a major volcanic belt formed by the many volcanoes that rim the Pacific Ocean
volcanoes create a string of islands known as this. Major ones are Japan, New Zealand, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Aleutians, and the Caribbean islands
a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances. Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are examples of elements
a substance made of two or more elements that have been chemically combined. Water, carbon dioxide, and table salt are familiar compounds
any characteristic of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the substance. Examples of physical properties include density, hardness, melting point, boiling point, and whether a substance is magnetic.
any property that produces a change in the composition of matter. Examples of chemical properties include a substance's ability to burn and its ability to combine, or react, with other substances
resistance of a liquid to flowing. Because liquids differ in viscosity, some liquids flow more easily than others.
is one of the most abundant materials in Earth's crust made up of particles of the elements oxygen and silicon
fast-moving, hot lava that has low viscosity.
Lava that is cooler and slower-moving
Beneath a volcano, magma collects in this pocket
long tube in the ground that connects the magma chamber to Earth's surface
Molten rock and gas leave the volcano through this opening
the area covered by lava as it pours out of a vent
a bowl-shaped area that may form at the top of a volcano around the central vent
occurs when an explosive eruption hurls out a mixture of hot gases, ash, cinders, and bombs
A volcano that is not currently active, but may become active in the future.
a dead volcano
when lava flows gradually to build a wide, gently sloping mountain
when ash, cinders, and bomb materials build up around the vent in a steep, cone-shaped hill or small mountain it is called this
tall, cone-shaped mountains in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash
The huge hole left by the collapse of a volcanic mountain
forms when magma hardens in a volcano's pipe
Magma that forces itself across rock layers hardens into this
When magma squeezes between horizontal layers of rock, it forms this
the mass of rock formed when a large body of magma cools inside the crust.
when magma a few kilometers beneath Earth's surface heats underground water
a fountain of water and steam that erupts from the ground
an area where material from deep within the mantle rises and then melts, forming magma.
magma that has reached the surface