13 terms

11.1 Antibody production and vaccination

Essential vocabulary for the IBO DP Biology course
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Allergen
any substance, often a protein, that induces an allergy: common allergens include pollen, grasses, dust, and some medications.
Antibody
a Y-shaped protein on the surface of B-cells that is secreted into the blood or lymph in response to an antigenic stimulus, such as a bacterium or virus.
B-cell
a type of lymphocyte that, when stimulated by a particular antigen, differentiates into plasma cells that synthesize the antibodies that circulate in the blood and react with the specific antigens.
Clones (of plasma cells)
differentiated plasma cells that secrete a specific antibody and a clone of memory cells that make the antibody on subsequent encounters.
Histamine
a physiologically active amine found in plant and animal tissue and released from mast cells as part of an allergic reaction in humans. It causes the dilation of capillaries, constriction of bronchial smooth muscle, and decreased blood pressure.
Hybridoma
a cell hybrid produced in vitro by the fusion of a lymphocyte that produces antibodies and a myeloma tumour cell in order to produce a continuous supply of a specific antibody.
Memory cell
a type of lymphocyte that is released as a specific immune response and is stored in case of a second exposure to the same antigen.
Monoclonal antibodies
any of the highly specific antibodies produced in large quantities by the clones of a single hybrid cell that has been formed in the laboratory by the fusion of a B-cell with a tumour cell.
Pathogen
an agent that causes disease or illness in another organism.
Plasma cell
a fully differentiated B-lymphocyte (white blood cell) that produces a single type of antibody.
Smallpox
an acute, highly infectious, often fatal disease caused by a poxvirus. It is characterized by high fever and aches, and is believed to have been eradicated globally by widespread vaccination.
T-lymphocyte
a type of white blood cell that completes maturation in the thymus and that has various roles in the immune system, including the identification of specific foreign antigens in the body and the activation and deactivation of other immune cells.
Vaccine
a preparation of a weakened or killed pathogen, such as a bacterium or virus, or of a portion of the pathogen's structure that stimulates antibody production or cellular immunity against the pathogen once administered, but is incapable of causing severe infection.