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Terms in this set (17)
Great American Desert
Arid region of the Great Plains that acted as a barrier to cross on the way to the Pacific and a refuge for Indians but changed in the last half of the nineteenth century as a result of new finds of gold, silver, and other minerals, completion of transcontinental railroads, destruction of the buffalo, the collapse of Indian resistance, the rise of the range-cattle industry, and the dawning realization that the arid region need not be a sterile desert.
This was completed in 1869 and connected the East to the West. It led to better communication, trade and closing the frontier.
Political movement that grew out of the Patrons of Husbandry, an educational and social organization for farmers founded in 1867; the Grange had its greatest success in the Midwest of the 1870s, lobbying for government control of railroad and grain elevator rates and establishing farmers' cooperatives.
Land given to Native Americans in an effort to make up for all of the land that was taken from them in the history of our country. Land is unfortunately mostly barren and desert that doesn't provide for the continuation of their lifestyle and culture.
Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservation
A band of Indians in northeastern Oregon who were goaded into a daring flight in 1877 after U.S. authorities tried to put them on a reservation. Their leader Chief Joseph finally surrendered his breakaway group of about 700 Indians. They had made a 1700 mile, three month trek across the Continental Divide towards Canada. The plan was to rendezvous with Sitting Bull until they were forced to surrender. After this they were tricked into thinking they could be returned to their ancestral lands of Idaho. They were instead sent to a dusty reservation in Kansas where 40% of them died of disease. The survivors were eventually allowed to return to Idaho.
American Indian chief, leader of the Sioux, he lead the victory of Little Bighorn.
a holy man who led his people as a tribal chief during years of resistance to United States government policies
When Sioux indians rose up and left their reservations, white officials ordered them to return, bands of warriors gathered in Montana and united under two great leaders, one being this man and the other is Sitting Bull.
Led thousand of Indians against General George Armstrong Custer at Little Bighorn and killed every man includig Custer
He was a former general of the Civil War. He was nicknamed the "boy general." During the Sioux War of 1876-1877 he attacked 2,500 Sioux warriors near the Little Big Horn river in Montana and was completely wiped out. He and his 264 men's defeat was partially due to when two supporting colums failed to come to their rescue as reinforcement.
Battle of Little Big Horn
The 1876 battle begun when American cavalry under George Armstrong Custer attacked an encampment of Sioux, Arapaho, and Cheyenne Indians who resisted removal to a reservation. Custer's force was annihilated, but with whites calling for U.S. soldiers to retaliate, the Native American military victory was short-lived.
Helen Hunt Jackson
A writer. Author of the 1881 book A Century of Dishonor. The book exposed the U.S. governments many broken promises to the Native Americans. For example the government wanted Native Americans to assimilate, i.e. give up their beliefs and ways of life, that way to become part of the white culture.
a century's dishonor
Dawes Act 1887
Allotted lands to various Indian tribes and extended protection through federal laws over the Indians. It was designed to encourage the breakup of the tribes and promote the assimilation of Indians into American Society. Dawes' goal was to create independent farmers out of Indians -- give them land and the tools for citizenship.
dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If the Indians behaved like "good white settlers" then they would get full title to their holdings as well as citizenship. The Dawes Act attempted to assimilate the Indians with the white men. The Dawes Act remained the basis of the government's official Indian policy until the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.
A cult that tried to call the spirits of past warriors to inspire the young braves to fight. It was crushed at the Battle of Wounded Knee after spreading to the Dakota Sioux. The Ghost Dance led to the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. This act tried to reform Indian tribes and turn them into "white" citizens. It did little good.
located on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in southwestern South Dakota,was the site of two conflicts between North American Indians and representatives of the U.S. government.An 1890 massacre left some 150Native Americansdead, in what was the final clash between federal troops and the Sioux.
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
Chinese Exclusionary Act 1882
This was an Act passed by Congress in 1882 effectively barring Chinese workers from immigrating to the US and becoming citizens for ten years and became precedent for further immigration restrictions. The act led to a sharp decline of Chinese population in the United States.
Banned all entry of Chinese except upper class made up of students, teachers, merchants and government officials.
Describe the policies that were adopted in the late 19th century that were designed to remove the Native Americans of the Trans-Mississippi West, as an obstacle to American westward expansion.
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