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John F. Kennedy
43 year old senator from MA, appeared more vigorous and comfortable on the first televised debates than his republican counterpart
advocated by JFK in 1960 election; promised to revitalize the stagnant economy & enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
an organization that recruited young American volunteers to give technical aid to developing countries
Trade Expansion Act
authorized tariff reduction with the recently formed European Economic Community of the Western European nations
Bay of Pigs
April 1961- CIA sponsored Cuban exiles try to over through Castro; Eisenhower started it but decided not to do it; JFK took full responsibility for the failure
The Sovietast Germans, with Soviet backing built this around West Berlin to stop east germans for leaving to west germany
Cuban Missile crisis
The US discovered that the Russians were building underground sites in Cuba for the launching of offensive missiles that could reach the US in minutes; Kennedy responded by announcing to the world that he was setting up a naval blockade of cuba until the weapons were removed ; krushchev agreed to remove missiles from cuba after kennedy pledgednot to invade the island nation
increase spending on conventional arms and mobile military forces; reduced risk of using nuclear weapons and also increased the temptatiopn to send elite specail forces into combat; moved away from idea of massive retalliation
took oath of office as president abruptly after JFK was assassinated abour adn airplane at the Dallas airport
Johnson's war on poverty, was a set of New Dealish economic and welfare measure aimed at transforming US way of life
War on Poverty
Johnson responded to Harrington's "The other america" by declaring an unconditional ___ __ _______. (significantluy reduced the number of american families living in poverty before it was cut back to pay for the Vietnam War)
The Other America
helped to focus national attention on the 40 million americans stil lliving in poverty
senator of arizona who advocated ending the welfare state, including TVA and social security
Lady Bird Johnson
first lady after Jackie Kennedy, contributed to the environment with her Beautify America campaign
Civil Rights Act of 1964
made segregation illegal in all public facilities and gave the federal government additional powers to enforce school desegregation
abolished the practice of collecting a poll tax; one of the measures that discouraged poor persons from voting
Voting Rights Act of 1965
ended literacy tests and provided federal registars in areas in which blacks were kept from voting
young african american air foce veteran who attempted to enroll in the university of mississippi
March on Washington
KIng led one of the largest and most the successful demonstrations in US history about 200,000 blacks and whites took part in this successful march
"I Have a Dream" Speech
appealed for the end of racial prejudice and ended with everyone in the crowd singing "We Shall Overcome"
acquired a reputation as the Black Muslim movement's most controversial voice; criticized MLK as "an uncle tom" and advocated self-defense
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
thinkiing influenced by the radicalism of Malcom X; formed by young blacks; advocating black power; scornful of integration and and interracial cooperation, broke with MLK Jr., to advocate greater militancy and acts of violence.
Congress of Racial Equality
famous for freedom rides which drew attention to Southern barbarity, leading to the passing of civil rights legislation.
chairman of SNCC repudiated nonviolence and advocated "black power" and racial separatism
organized by Huey Newton, BObby seale and other militants as a revolutionary socialist movement advocating self rule for American blacks
in the summer of 1965, LA; resulted in the deaths of 34 people and the destruction of 700 buildings
federal investigation of many riots; conclude in late 1968 that racism and segregation were chiefly responsible and that the US was becoming "two societies, one black, one white--separate and unequal"
Supreme Court under Earl Warren; had an impact on the nation comparable to that of John Marshall
Brown v. BOard of Education of Topeka
desegregation case; the most important case of the 20the century involving race relations
Escobedo v. Illinois
required the police to inform an arrested person of his or her right to remain silent
Miranda v. Arizona
extended the ruling in Escobedo to include the right to a lawyer being present during questioning by the police
the process of reallocating seats in the House of Representatives every 10 years on the basis of the results of the census.
Baker v. Carr
declared practices like for one house of a state legislature to be based upon the drawing of district lines that strongly favored rural areas to the disadvantage of large cities unconstitutional
"one man, one vote"
meant that election districts would have to be redrawn to provide equal representattion for all of a state's citizens
Yates v. Unted States
said tha the first amendment protected radical and revolutionary speech, even by COmmunists unless it was a "clear and present danger" to the safety of the country
separation of church and state
Engel vs. Vitale ruled that state laws requiring prayers and Bible readings in the public schools violated the first amendments provision for this
Engel V. Vitale
ruled that state laws requiring prayers and Bible readings in the public schools violated the first amendmetns provision for separation of church and state
Students for a Democratic SOciety
a group of radical students led by Tom Hayden issued a declaration of purposes known as the port Huron statement
expressed in young people in rebellious styles of dress, music, drug use, and for some, communal living
one aspect of counterculture that continued beyond the 1960s was a change in many Americans' attitudes toward sexual expressions
increased education and emplyment of women in the 1950s, the civil rights movement, and the sexual revolution all contributed to a rebirth of this
Betty Friedan, the feminine mystique
gave the women's movement a new direction by encouraging middle-class women to seek fulfillment in professional careers rather than confinig themselves to the roles of wife, mother, and homemaker.
National Organization for Women
adopted activist tactics of other civil rights movements to secure equal treatment of women
Equal Pay Act (1963)
one of the antidiscrimitory laws enacted by congress by the time the NOW formed
equal Rights Amendment
constitutional amendment that stated "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any state on account of sex" - NOT PASSED
2.7 million Americans served in the conflict and 58000 died in an increasingly costly and hopeless effort to prevent South Vietnam from falling to Communism
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
gave the president, as commander in chief a blank check to take "all necessary measures" to protect US interests in Vietnam
the vietncong launcehd an all out surprise attack on almost evey provincial capital and american base in south vietnam; US military conterattacked and recovered the lost territory
believed that the war was an act of Soviet backed Communist aggression against south vietnam and that it was part of a master plan to conquer all of southeast asia
the first antiwar advocate to challenge Johnson for the 1968 Democratic presidential nomination
senator in NY; decided to enter the presidetnail race after McCarthy's strong showing in NH; was shot after his major victory in CAs primary by a young Arab nationalist who opposed his support for Israel
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