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John F. Kennedy

43 year old senator from MA, appeared more vigorous and comfortable on the first televised debates than his republican counterpart

Jacqueline Kennedy

brought style, glamor and appreciation of the arts to the White House

New Frontier

advocated by JFK in 1960 election; promised to revitalize the stagnant economy & enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.

Peace Corps

an organization that recruited young American volunteers to give technical aid to developing countries

Alliance for Progress

organized to promote land reform and economic development in Latin America

Trade Expansion Act

authorized tariff reduction with the recently formed European Economic Community of the Western European nations

Bay of Pigs

April 1961- CIA sponsored Cuban exiles try to over through Castro; Eisenhower started it but decided not to do it; JFK took full responsibility for the failure

Berlin Wall

The Sovietast Germans, with Soviet backing built this around West Berlin to stop east germans for leaving to west germany

Cuban Missile crisis

The US discovered that the Russians were building underground sites in Cuba for the launching of offensive missiles that could reach the US in minutes; Kennedy responded by announcing to the world that he was setting up a naval blockade of cuba until the weapons were removed ; krushchev agreed to remove missiles from cuba after kennedy pledgednot to invade the island nation

flexible response

increase spending on conventional arms and mobile military forces; reduced risk of using nuclear weapons and also increased the temptatiopn to send elite specail forces into combat; moved away from idea of massive retalliation

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

ended the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere

Warren Commission

concluded that oswald was the lone assassin in Kennedy's Murder

Lyndon Johnson

took oath of office as president abruptly after JFK was assassinated abour adn airplane at the Dallas airport

Great Society

Johnson's war on poverty, was a set of New Dealish economic and welfare measure aimed at transforming US way of life

War on Poverty

Johnson responded to Harrington's "The other america" by declaring an unconditional ___ __ _______. (significantluy reduced the number of american families living in poverty before it was cut back to pay for the Vietnam War)

The Other America

helped to focus national attention on the 40 million americans stil lliving in poverty

Barry Goldwater

senator of arizona who advocated ending the welfare state, including TVA and social security


a healt insurance program for trhose those 65 and older

Elementary and Secondary Education Act

provided aid especially to poor school disctricts

Ralph Nader; unsafe at any speed

congress passed programs to regulate the automobile in response to

Rachel Carson, Silent Spring

clean air and water laws were enacted in part as a response to this

Lady Bird Johnson

first lady after Jackie Kennedy, contributed to the environment with her Beautify America campaign

Civil Rights Act of 1964

made segregation illegal in all public facilities and gave the federal government additional powers to enforce school desegregation

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

set up to end racial discrimination in employment

Twenty-fourth Amendment

abolished the practice of collecting a poll tax; one of the measures that discouraged poor persons from voting

Voting Rights Act of 1965

ended literacy tests and provided federal registars in areas in which blacks were kept from voting

James Meredith

young african american air foce veteran who attempted to enroll in the university of mississippi

Martin Luther King, Jr.

remained committed to nonviolent protests against segregation

March on Washington

KIng led one of the largest and most the successful demonstrations in US history about 200,000 blacks and whites took part in this successful march

"I Have a Dream" Speech

appealed for the end of racial prejudice and ended with everyone in the crowd singing "We Shall Overcome"

Black Muslim

leader Elijah Muhammad preached black nationalism, separatism, amd self-improvemetn

Malcom X

acquired a reputation as the Black Muslim movement's most controversial voice; criticized MLK as "an uncle tom" and advocated self-defense

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

thinkiing influenced by the radicalism of Malcom X; formed by young blacks; advocating black power; scornful of integration and and interracial cooperation, broke with MLK Jr., to advocate greater militancy and acts of violence.

Congress of Racial Equality

famous for freedom rides which drew attention to Southern barbarity, leading to the passing of civil rights legislation.

Stokely Carmichael

chairman of SNCC repudiated nonviolence and advocated "black power" and racial separatism

Black Panthers

organized by Huey Newton, BObby seale and other militants as a revolutionary socialist movement advocating self rule for American blacks

Watts riots

in the summer of 1965, LA; resulted in the deaths of 34 people and the destruction of 700 buildings

Kerner Commission

federal investigation of many riots; conclude in late 1968 that racism and segregation were chiefly responsible and that the US was becoming "two societies, one black, one white--separate and unequal"

Warren Court

Supreme Court under Earl Warren; had an impact on the nation comparable to that of John Marshall

Brown v. BOard of Education of Topeka

desegregation case; the most important case of the 20the century involving race relations

Gideon v. Wainwright

required that state courts provide counsel for indigent defendants

Escobedo v. Illinois

required the police to inform an arrested person of his or her right to remain silent

Miranda v. Arizona

extended the ruling in Escobedo to include the right to a lawyer being present during questioning by the police


the process of reallocating seats in the House of Representatives every 10 years on the basis of the results of the census.

Baker v. Carr

declared practices like for one house of a state legislature to be based upon the drawing of district lines that strongly favored rural areas to the disadvantage of large cities unconstitutional

"one man, one vote"

meant that election districts would have to be redrawn to provide equal representattion for all of a state's citizens

Yates v. Unted States

said tha the first amendment protected radical and revolutionary speech, even by COmmunists unless it was a "clear and present danger" to the safety of the country

separation of church and state

Engel vs. Vitale ruled that state laws requiring prayers and Bible readings in the public schools violated the first amendments provision for this

Engel V. Vitale

ruled that state laws requiring prayers and Bible readings in the public schools violated the first amendmetns provision for separation of church and state

Students for a Democratic SOciety

a group of radical students led by Tom Hayden issued a declaration of purposes known as the port Huron statement

New Left

Activists and intellecctuals who supported Hayden's ideas


expressed in young people in rebellious styles of dress, music, drug use, and for some, communal living

sexual revolution

one aspect of counterculture that continued beyond the 1960s was a change in many Americans' attitudes toward sexual expressions

women's movement

increased education and emplyment of women in the 1950s, the civil rights movement, and the sexual revolution all contributed to a rebirth of this

Betty Friedan, the feminine mystique

gave the women's movement a new direction by encouraging middle-class women to seek fulfillment in professional careers rather than confinig themselves to the roles of wife, mother, and homemaker.

National Organization for Women

adopted activist tactics of other civil rights movements to secure equal treatment of women

Equal Pay Act (1963)

one of the antidiscrimitory laws enacted by congress by the time the NOW formed

equal Rights Amendment

constitutional amendment that stated "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any state on account of sex" - NOT PASSED

Vietnam War

2.7 million Americans served in the conflict and 58000 died in an increasingly costly and hopeless effort to prevent South Vietnam from falling to Communism

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

gave the president, as commander in chief a blank check to take "all necessary measures" to protect US interests in Vietnam

Tet Offensive

the vietncong launcehd an all out surprise attack on almost evey provincial capital and american base in south vietnam; US military conterattacked and recovered the lost territory


believed that the war was an act of Soviet backed Communist aggression against south vietnam and that it was part of a master plan to conquer all of southeast asia

Eugene McCarthy

the first antiwar advocate to challenge Johnson for the 1968 Democratic presidential nomination

Robert Kennedy

senator in NY; decided to enter the presidetnail race after McCarthy's strong showing in NH; was shot after his major victory in CAs primary by a young Arab nationalist who opposed his support for Israel

George Wallace

conservative who ran in the election of 1968

Hubert Humphrey

Vice President who was the liberal running in the election of 1968

Michael Harrington

author of "The Other America"


government paid health care for the poor and the disabled


viewed the vietnam war as a civil war fought by vietnamese nationalists and some communists who wanted to unite their country by overthrowing a corrupt Saigon government

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