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Amsco AP US History Chapter 28

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John F. Kennedy
43 year old senator from MA, appeared more vigorous and comfortable on the first televised debates than his republican counterpart
Jacqueline Kennedy
brought style, glamor and appreciation of the arts to the White House
New Frontier
advocated by JFK in 1960 election; promised to revitalize the stagnant economy & enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
Peace Corps
an organization that recruited young American volunteers to give technical aid to developing countries
Alliance for Progress
organized to promote land reform and economic development in Latin America
Trade Expansion Act
authorized tariff reduction with the recently formed European Economic Community of the Western European nations
Bay of Pigs
April 1961- CIA sponsored Cuban exiles try to over through Castro; Eisenhower started it but decided not to do it; JFK took full responsibility for the failure
Berlin Wall
The Sovietast Germans, with Soviet backing built this around West Berlin to stop east germans for leaving to west germany
Cuban Missile crisis
The US discovered that the Russians were building underground sites in Cuba for the launching of offensive missiles that could reach the US in minutes; Kennedy responded by announcing to the world that he was setting up a naval blockade of cuba until the weapons were removed ; krushchev agreed to remove missiles from cuba after kennedy pledgednot to invade the island nation
flexible response
increase spending on conventional arms and mobile military forces; reduced risk of using nuclear weapons and also increased the temptatiopn to send elite specail forces into combat; moved away from idea of massive retalliation
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
ended the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere
Warren Commission
concluded that oswald was the lone assassin in Kennedy's Murder
Lyndon Johnson
took oath of office as president abruptly after JFK was assassinated abour adn airplane at the Dallas airport
Great Society
Johnson's war on poverty, was a set of New Dealish economic and welfare measure aimed at transforming US way of life
War on Poverty
Johnson responded to Harrington's "The other america" by declaring an unconditional ___ __ _______. (significantluy reduced the number of american families living in poverty before it was cut back to pay for the Vietnam War)
The Other America
helped to focus national attention on the 40 million americans stil lliving in poverty
Barry Goldwater
senator of arizona who advocated ending the welfare state, including TVA and social security
Medicare
a healt insurance program for trhose those 65 and older
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
provided aid especially to poor school disctricts
Ralph Nader; unsafe at any speed
congress passed programs to regulate the automobile in response to
Rachel Carson, Silent Spring
clean air and water laws were enacted in part as a response to this
Lady Bird Johnson
first lady after Jackie Kennedy, contributed to the environment with her Beautify America campaign
Civil Rights Act of 1964
made segregation illegal in all public facilities and gave the federal government additional powers to enforce school desegregation
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
set up to end racial discrimination in employment
Twenty-fourth Amendment
abolished the practice of collecting a poll tax; one of the measures that discouraged poor persons from voting
Voting Rights Act of 1965
ended literacy tests and provided federal registars in areas in which blacks were kept from voting
James Meredith
young african american air foce veteran who attempted to enroll in the university of mississippi
Martin Luther King, Jr.
remained committed to nonviolent protests against segregation
March on Washington
KIng led one of the largest and most the successful demonstrations in US history about 200,000 blacks and whites took part in this successful march
"I Have a Dream" Speech
appealed for the end of racial prejudice and ended with everyone in the crowd singing "We Shall Overcome"
Black Muslim
leader Elijah Muhammad preached black nationalism, separatism, amd self-improvemetn
Malcom X
acquired a reputation as the Black Muslim movement's most controversial voice; criticized MLK as "an uncle tom" and advocated self-defense
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
thinkiing influenced by the radicalism of Malcom X; formed by young blacks; advocating black power; scornful of integration and and interracial cooperation, broke with MLK Jr., to advocate greater militancy and acts of violence.
Congress of Racial Equality
famous for freedom rides which drew attention to Southern barbarity, leading to the passing of civil rights legislation.
Stokely Carmichael
chairman of SNCC repudiated nonviolence and advocated "black power" and racial separatism
Black Panthers
organized by Huey Newton, BObby seale and other militants as a revolutionary socialist movement advocating self rule for American blacks
Watts riots
in the summer of 1965, LA; resulted in the deaths of 34 people and the destruction of 700 buildings
Kerner Commission
federal investigation of many riots; conclude in late 1968 that racism and segregation were chiefly responsible and that the US was becoming "two societies, one black, one white--separate and unequal"
Warren Court
Supreme Court under Earl Warren; had an impact on the nation comparable to that of John Marshall
Brown v. BOard of Education of Topeka
desegregation case; the most important case of the 20the century involving race relations
Gideon v. Wainwright
required that state courts provide counsel for indigent defendants
Escobedo v. Illinois
required the police to inform an arrested person of his or her right to remain silent
Miranda v. Arizona
extended the ruling in Escobedo to include the right to a lawyer being present during questioning by the police
reapportionment
the process of reallocating seats in the House of Representatives every 10 years on the basis of the results of the census.
Baker v. Carr
declared practices like for one house of a state legislature to be based upon the drawing of district lines that strongly favored rural areas to the disadvantage of large cities unconstitutional
"one man, one vote"
meant that election districts would have to be redrawn to provide equal representattion for all of a state's citizens
Yates v. Unted States
said tha the first amendment protected radical and revolutionary speech, even by COmmunists unless it was a "clear and present danger" to the safety of the country
separation of church and state
Engel vs. Vitale ruled that state laws requiring prayers and Bible readings in the public schools violated the first amendments provision for this
Engel V. Vitale
ruled that state laws requiring prayers and Bible readings in the public schools violated the first amendmetns provision for separation of church and state
Students for a Democratic SOciety
a group of radical students led by Tom Hayden issued a declaration of purposes known as the port Huron statement
New Left
Activists and intellecctuals who supported Hayden's ideas
counterculture
expressed in young people in rebellious styles of dress, music, drug use, and for some, communal living
sexual revolution
one aspect of counterculture that continued beyond the 1960s was a change in many Americans' attitudes toward sexual expressions
women's movement
increased education and emplyment of women in the 1950s, the civil rights movement, and the sexual revolution all contributed to a rebirth of this
Betty Friedan, the feminine mystique
gave the women's movement a new direction by encouraging middle-class women to seek fulfillment in professional careers rather than confinig themselves to the roles of wife, mother, and homemaker.
National Organization for Women
adopted activist tactics of other civil rights movements to secure equal treatment of women
Equal Pay Act (1963)
one of the antidiscrimitory laws enacted by congress by the time the NOW formed
equal Rights Amendment
constitutional amendment that stated "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any state on account of sex" - NOT PASSED
Vietnam War
2.7 million Americans served in the conflict and 58000 died in an increasingly costly and hopeless effort to prevent South Vietnam from falling to Communism
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
gave the president, as commander in chief a blank check to take "all necessary measures" to protect US interests in Vietnam
Tet Offensive
the vietncong launcehd an all out surprise attack on almost evey provincial capital and american base in south vietnam; US military conterattacked and recovered the lost territory
hawks
believed that the war was an act of Soviet backed Communist aggression against south vietnam and that it was part of a master plan to conquer all of southeast asia
Eugene McCarthy
the first antiwar advocate to challenge Johnson for the 1968 Democratic presidential nomination
Robert Kennedy
senator in NY; decided to enter the presidetnail race after McCarthy's strong showing in NH; was shot after his major victory in CAs primary by a young Arab nationalist who opposed his support for Israel
George Wallace
conservative who ran in the election of 1968
Hubert Humphrey
Vice President who was the liberal running in the election of 1968
Michael Harrington
author of "The Other America"
medicaid
government paid health care for the poor and the disabled
doves
viewed the vietnam war as a civil war fought by vietnamese nationalists and some communists who wanted to unite their country by overthrowing a corrupt Saigon government