31 terms

Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders

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harmful dysfunction
A concept used in one approach to the definition of mental disorder. A condition can be considered a mental disorder if it causes some harm to the person and if the condition results from the inability of some mental mechanism to perform its natural function
agoraphobia
anxiety disorder characterized by marked fear and avoidance of being alone in a place from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing
antisocial personality disorder
characterized by a lack of regard for others rights', impulsivity, deceitfulness. irresponsibility, and lack of remorse over misdeeds.
anxiety disorders
characterized by excessive and persistent fear and anxiety, and by related disturbances in behavior
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
childhood disorder characterized by inattentiveness and/or hyperactive, impulsive behavior
autism spectrum disorder
childhood disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication, and repetitive patterns of behavior or interests
bipolar disorder
A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.
borderline personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by volatile emotions, an unstable self-image, and impulsive behavior in relationships
DSM-5
authoritative index of mental disorders and the criteria for their diagnosis, published by the American Psychiatric Association
diagnosis
determination of which disorder a set of symptoms represents
delusion
belief that is contrary to reality and is firmly held, despite contradictory evidence
dissociative disorders
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
dissociative identity disorder
A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
hallucination
perceptual experience that occurs in the absence of external stimulation
hoarding disorder
a disorder in which the person has a compulsive need to acquire objects and extreme difficulty in disposing of those objects
hopelessness theory
cognitive theory of depression proposing that a style of thinking that perceives negative life events as having stable and global causes leads to a sense of hopelessness and then to depression
mania
state of extreme elation and agitation
manic episode
experience marked by dramatically elevated mood, decreased need for sleep, increased energy, inflated self-esteem, increased talkativeness, and irresponsible behavior
obsessive compulsive disorder
characterized by the tendency to experience intrusive and unwanted thoughts and urges (obsession) and/or the need to engage in repetitive behaviors or mental acts (compulsions) in response to the unwanted thoughts and urges
panic attack
period of extreme fear or discomfort that develops abruptly
paranoid delusion
characterized by beliefs that others are out to harm them
psychological disorder
condition characterized by abnormal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
psychopathology
the scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of psychological disorders
schizophrenia
severe disorder characterized by major disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior with symptoms that include hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking and behavior, and negative symptoms
seasonal pattern
subtype of depression in which a person experiences the symptoms of major depressive disorder only during a particular time of the year
social anxiety disorder
characterized by extreme and persistent fear or anxiety and avoidance of social situations in which one could potentially be evaluated negatively by others
ventricle
one of the fluid-filled cavities within the brain
body dysmorphic disorder
involves excessive preoccupation with an imagined defect in physical appearance
post-traumatic stress disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
flashbacks
psychological state lasting from a few seconds to several days, during which one relives a traumatic event and behaves as though the event were occurring at that moment
comorbidity
the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual
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