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According to John Kotter, leadership (in contrast to management)

Entails setting a direction for the organization

Kotter suggests that what are two
distinct, yet complementary systems of action in organizations

Leadership and management

According to Kotter, effective leadership
produces useful change


According to Zaleznik's thinking on
leaders as distinct personalities, leaders and managers differ along four different dimensions of personality. Which of the following is not

Internal vs. external orientation

Trait leader's theories focus on which of
the following

Focus on leaders physical attributes, personality characteristics, and ability

Trait leader theories focus on all of the
following except

Situational characteristics

Which of the following is NOT one of the
leadership category factors


Which of the following statements best
reflects the support for trait theories to identify universal distinguishing attributes of a leader

Findings on traits as a basis for explaining leader effectiveness are neither strong nor

Trait theories of leadership attempt to
focus on a leader are

Physical attributes, personality, and abilities

Autocratic leaders tend to be task
oriented and utilize initiating structure behavior


Leaders agitate for change and new
approaches, managers advocate stability and the status quo


A major difference between trait and
behavioral theories of leadership is

Trait theories emphasize personality & ability attributes versus actions and abilities

All of the following are autocratic leader
characteristics except

Being employee centered is not considered to be a characteristic of an autocratic leader

The most pronounced consequence of
laissez-faire leadership tends to be

Chaos in the work environment

The important underlying behaviors of
the Ohio State leadership studies are

Consideration and Initiating Structure

Which one is NOT considered to be
behaviors of initiating structure

Encouraging mutual respect and interpersonal trust

According to the Michigan studies on
leadership, a work environment characterized by constant influence attempts on the part of the leader through closer supervision or written rules and regulations is likely the result in which style

Production oriented style

Blake and Mouton's Leadership grid
identifies the country club manager as

Someone who creates a pleasing, happy work environment and applies minimal supervision

According to the leadership Grid
approach to leadership, the manager who exerts just enough effort to avoid being fired would be consistent with what position

1, 1 position on the grid

The impoverished manager is one who

Exerts just enough effort to avoid being fired

According to Blake and Mouton and their
Leadership Grid, a manager with a high concern for production and low concern for people would be what position

In the 9,1 position on the grid

The Leadership Grid approach to
leadership evaluates the (9,9) team manager as the very best style of managerial behavior


The variables used to determine the
most appropriate leader behavior in House's path-goal theory are

Follower characteristics and task characteristics

Which of the following is NOT one of the
leader behavior styles one can choose from when using the path-goal theory of leader effectiveness

A relationship oriented

The path-goal theory of leader
effectiveness by Robert House is based on

The expectancy theory of motivation

According to the Vroom-Yetton-Jogo
normative decision model all of the following are examples of decision making strategies except

Laissez-faire strategy

In the Hersey-Blanchard leadership
model, the leadership style most appropriate with very mature followers is

Delegating style

The situational leadership model by
Hershey and Blanchard suggest that a leader's behavior should be adjusted to the maturity level of the followers


The leadership approach which
recognizes that leaders may form different relationships with followers is

The Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory

Recent research on LMX theory has
revealed the surprising result that

Increased communication between the supervisor and out-group members may lead to lower performance ratings

The basic idea behind leader-member
exchange theory is leaders form what

Two groups of followers (in-groups and out-groups)

Transformational leaders

Inspire and stimulate followers to high performance

Howard Schultz CEO of Starbucks is
attempting to reunite Starbucks emotional attachment with Starbucks brand and streamline the company's international expansion. Schultz is using his charisma along with inspirational motivation and intellectual stimulation to change Starbucks. This reflects what type of leadership

Transformational Leadership

The positive face of charismatic
leadership is most strongly associated with what type of motivation

Socialized power motivation

According to the case study about
Apple's CEO Steve Jobs, the ability of a leader to create a vision and convince others to become a part of it, even skeptics, is known as

Reality-distortion field

A multidimensional construct that
includes transformational, charismatic, or transactional leadership as the situation might demand is known as

Authentic leadership

Authentic leaders are characterized all of
the following except


Emotional intelligence is made up of
competencies that include all of the following except

Higher cognitive functions

Which statement best characterizes
emotional intelligence and leadership

Emotional intelligence can be learned through honest feedback

Follower motivational training would be
LEAST successful with which of the followers


Followers who tend to be passive but
capable of independent and critical thinking are what type of followers


Charismatic leadership rests greatly with
________ power


The (LPC) Least preferred coworker scale is

A projective technique that evaluates the person a leader has least preferred to work with

The telling style of leadership in the
Hersey-Blanchard leadership model entails

Low concern of relationships and strong initiating structure

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