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Arts and Humanities
World history final
Terms in this set (43)
a scientist who studies artifacts
objects left behind by humans or human ancestors.
30 mile long gash in the earth on African windswept plain.
The remains or traces of living organisms preserved in the earths crust.
people who study the fossil remains of ancient animals and plants.
people who study human culture
a persons way of living, including knowledge, beliefs, and values.
that is a member of a family of beings that includes modern humans and a=many ancient human ancestors.
first human known to man so far, more than three million years old fossil
beings that roamed Africa beginning about four million years ago.
handy man because their ability to make tools by chipping at stones to create a sharp edge. They formed first organized social group by working together to hunt wild game.
upright man, they walked fully upright and first appeared about 1.8 million years ago. Originating in Africa. bigger brains. They made hand axes, cleavers, scrapers, and sharp-bladed knives. Lived in caves or simpler shelters and hunted big game. They learned how to use fire.
the men formed hunting groups and the women foraged nuts roots berries and seed. They lived in caves or simple huts and wore tunics made of hides or fur. Used animal bones to make blades and chisels.
modern humans evolved independently in various parts of the world.
out-of -Africa theory
The earliest homo sapiens originated in Africa and then migrated to other parts of the world.
more than 325 feet underground and include more than 1500 drawings, and 600 realistic paintings. These artworks were created over a span of 5000 years beginning more than 15000 years ago.
the old stone age which lasted from about 2000000 BC to about 11000 BC.
new stone age, when tools were increasingly used for farming.
aka the agricultural revolution humans went from hunting and gathering to farming and food producing.
before Christ 1500 BC is earlier than 150
before the common era
Anno Domini Latin for in the year of the lord
production of more than you need
The First Civilization
Five conditions, or characteristics, are common to all civilizations. Give a brief description of each of these characteristics:
• city life, with complex social organizations
• trade and economic activity, which propel innovation and spread knowledge
• governance, through which social order is maintained
• division of labor, in which different people take on specialized tasks
• record-keeping of some kind
Sumerian Achievement Bronze
used to make better farm implements and tools, such as plows, and armor and weapons
Sumerian Achievement Math
system based on 60; some features of system still used today (circle—360 degrees and hours and minutes in time)
Sumerian Achievement The Wheel
changed the way people traveled on land; enabled people to trade over greater distances
Sumerian Achievement Writing
used in trade; helped spread information and culture; led to literature
There were several causes for the decline of Sumer. Briefly describe each of the causes given.
• Salinization: Salt built up in the fertile soil over centuries, resulting in lower grain production.
• Inner Conflict: Rulers of various city-states became rivals for territory and fought wars.
• Outside Attacks: Nomadic people attacked and robbed Sumerian cities. Sumer had few natural defenses.
Which Mesopotamian civilization eventually conquered the Sumerian city-states? What technology helped them accomplish this?
the Akkadians; bronze weapons
Sumerian temple built as a terraced pyramid
the belief in many gods and goddesses
government where the ruler is believed to derive power from, and seeks guidance from, gods
an area made up of a city and the surrounding villages and fields
Sumerian writing that used wedge-like impressions in clay tablets
the accumulation of salt in soil over time
Sumer was the world's first civilization, because it had the five conditions necessary to define it as a civilization—city life, trade and economic activity, governance, division of labor, and record-keeping. Which characteristics did farming villages and clans of hunter-gatherers lack that prevented them from developing civilizations?
• Farming villages and hunter-gatherers lacked city life with complex social structures. Hunter-gatherers lacked division of labor, record-keeping, and trade and economic activity.
• social hierarchy (top to bottom): ruler (king); priests; wealthy land-owners; soldiers, merchants, and skilled artisans; free laborers; slaves
• religion: temples called ziggurats; Sumerian cities had their own special god or goddess; Sumerians practiced polytheism; gods and goddesses were believed to control all aspects of life
Trade/Economics of sumer
• grew surplus of grain; traded this for metal (copper and gold), wood, precious stones
• used ships to conduct trade
• traded with modern-day Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, and India
• theocracy—a government with a ruler who was believed to be guided by, and drew power from, the gods
• different king for each city-state; king expected to bring the favor of the gods to the city-state
• What did the king control in order to control the people? agriculture and trade
Innovations/Technology of sumer
• math (60-based number system)
Writing/Record-Keeping of sumer
• first developed to record economic transactions
• progression: 1. clay tokens with shapes; 2. pictograms on clay tablets; 3. cuneiform—wedge-shaped impressions on clay
• Who did most of the writing? scribes
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