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Add more reactant, shift...

Right (to use excess reactant)

Add more product, then shift...

Left (to use excess product)

Remove reactant, shift...


Remove product, shift...


3 stresses applied at equilibrium...

Concentration, pressure, temperature

3 means of affecting pressure of gaseous systems...

Concentration, volume of container, addition of an inert gas

Decrease the volume, then shift...

To the side with fewer number of moles to bring pressure back down

Increase the volume, then shift...

To the side with the greater number of moles to bring pressure back up

Increase or decrease the volume of the container for a reaction who has an equal number of moles on reactant and product side, then...

reaction will not be able to reach equilibrium

If you add an inert gas to a system at equilibrium, then...

no shift (because the inert gas only increases the total pressure of the system and has no effect on the partial pressures of the reactants or the products)

Endothermic, change in enthalpy is...


Exothermix, change in enthalpy is...


ENDOTHERMIC: If you add more heat, then shift...

Right (to use excess heat)

ENDOTHERMIC: If you remove heat, then shift...

Left (to replenish missing heat)

EXOTHERMIC: If you add more heat, then shift...

Left (to use excess heat)

EXOTHERMIC: If you remove heat, then shift...

Right (to replenish missing heat)

ax(squared) + bx + c = 0

standard form


quadratic formula

Big K...

stoichiometry and equilibrium (lots of product)

Small K...

equilibrium (lots of reactant)

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