Features which people use to give them national common bonds include ancestry, common historical experience, ethnic identity, geographical separation (such as if the nation is located on an island), religion, attachment to territory and the security of that territory (such as France), and language. However, it is also possible for people to dispute where a nation is indeed "a nation" (such as inter war Czechoslovakia which was put together with multiple cultures that couldn't connect with each other, there was no whole "Czech" identity), or who makes a member (such as are you Welsh if you live there, but can't speak the language?) The increasing level of interdependence between countries in the world has made the role of separate states somewhat irrelevant. This is due to the existence of global, as opposed to national trade markets, which makes national states powerless to controlling the economy, since it relies on multiple states. Control has thus moved to supranational bodies like the IMF. In addition to trade markets, financial markets have also become globalised, which marginalises the role of national banks like the Bank of England. Environmental issues like global warming are usually irrespective of borders, and other issues that have to be dealt with globally include terrorism, nuclear safety (weapons), crime in some cases (through Interpol). Finally, even separate cultures have been threatened by globalisation, due to the threat of this being globalised through the Internet and other means. The EU is seen by some, such as UKIP in Britain, as the greatest threat to the independent nation, because the champions of European integration argue that economic and political independence is inevitably in decline. With that said, the founder, Monnet, didn't plan the demise of the nation state when he founded the EU, moreover he saw Europe as becoming a single economic and political entity, yet national cultures would still exist, even if state power was weakened and removed to the international body. Thus the nation would be protected, but not the nation-state. The main reasons for analysts making this prediction is due to the effect of globalisation, which threatens the basic functions of the state, such as maintaining law and order, securing the state against external threats, maintaining welfare and promoting economic and social progress. Because supranationalism has considerably developed in world organisations such as the EU or the IMF, there has been a huge increase in the power and influence of international organisations generally over that of nation-states. Many of the Nation state's individual problems have become supranational, eg markets have become more internationally dependent, crime fighting operating across countries (such as Interpol), environmental problems not regarding national borders and affecting more than one nation state, or the whole world, such as climate change, and terrorism. Finally, it could be argued that an "international" culture is now being developed, through the worldwide development of the English language, and the Internet. The United States Civil War of 1861-1865 was based around the survival of the Union which brought the states within the USA together. The conflict started after seven southern states declared independence from the USA, and formed a confederation. The confederation grew eventually into 11 states, which fought against the other states which remained in the USA. The main issue over the conflict was slavery - Abraham Lincoln was strongly against it, and wanted slavery banned, however the confederate states wanted slavery to remain legal, due to their individual economies being based on cotton. The end result was that, after years of bloody fighting, with thousand losing their lives, the union survived, and the 13th amendment to the US constitution in 1864 abolished slavery, with exception to it being as a punishment for crime.
Lincoln's efforts to save the union and end the Civil War can be seen as Conservative Nationalism to the extent that he was trying to maintain the union that made up the USA (thus maintaining America's traditional institutions) and in the process stopping a "revolution" that may have occurred if the Southerners won.
While it has been the case that some fascist states were not necessarily racist, they became linked due to the heavy emphasis on race theory and eugenics by Nazi Germany in the 1930s, which was eventually caught on by those such as Mussolini in Italy, who started handing over Jews to the Third Reich. In addition, nationalism was shown to be a key aspect of fascist movements (due to their seeking of expansionism), and in fascist movements, ethnic identity was seen as a key feature of shared existence within the nation. In the case of the Nazis, they saw the "Aryan Race" as being what classified a "German", and they used "scientific" theories to justify their policy of racial purity and genocide against inferiors. However, while fascists were often racist or racialist or both, these two things are not the same as fascism. Most large nations are multiracial in their origin, such as China and Britain. Not only are they multiracial, but they can draw strength from this (USA / UK for example). While these nations can be dominated by one specific race, and can have a common culture through things such as language, "race" and "nation" are still not synonymous, because races can co-exist within nations. While right wing movements continue to maintain that race is a key element in identity, liberals have strongly disagreed, as they believe national culture is pluralist, thus different cultures can co-exist within a nation and work together, and in addition, national cultures are evolving. Meanwhile, despite being against cultural mixing and immigration, conservative nationalists believe that national identity is based mainly on a single culture's development in all forms, not by racial purity. Tanzania was a country brought together under British colonial rule, but consisting of many tribes and languages. Their first elected President, Nyerere, believed that common language by all could be used to unite the people in a "family bond", and by insisting all the tribes followed this language, he could forge a new nation with a common culture. This is thus an example of social unity in Post Colonial Nationalism. Nyerere also followed Socialist Nationalism, by ensuring the new state supported the working classes with a strong provision for health and education. However, due to economic imperialism, Tanzania became a very poor country, with unrest quickly growing. Nyerere then became an authoritarian One-Party dictator to try and resolve the issues, but this failed, and in 1985 he resigned the Presidency. With Socialism failing, free market policies were introduced. As a result of a poor economy brought about by bankruptcy after the Second World War, Britain gradually allowed independence to states that had been part of the empire, though they remained as friends through the new commonwealth, which was (and still is) headed by the monarchy. Since the 1970s especially, there has been renewed interest over the issue of devolution (as well as perhaps independence), to the regions which surround England: Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales. The issue had initially been most prominent in Northern Ireland, where a period known as "The Troubles" saw Irish republicans fight against unionists over the issue of Northern Ireland remaining or not remaining with the rest of the U.K. The IRA conducted many assassinations and atrocities during the period, killing three MPs between 1975 and 1990, most notably Airey Neave and Ian Gow, as well as attempting to assassinate Margret Thatcher in Brighton in 1984. The Good Friday Agreement of 1998 ended the troubles, when the government of Tony Blair granted devolution to Northern Ireland. Scotland soon received similar devolution, and in the 2000s and 2010s, the rise of the Scottish National Party resulted in the possibility of Scotland becoming an independent nation was now seriously being considered. The referendum of 2014 saw 55% of people vote to remain in the UK, but due to the apparent failures of the Smith Commission to deliver further autonomy to Scotland, the possibility of complete Scottish autonomy is still an issue being debated. Imperialism - expansionist and racial nationalists would support imperialism, as they both believe in expanding nations so that either whole ethnicities can be included in one giant state, or that some states are better (and thus should be more dominant) than others due to their characteristics. However, social nationalists would disagree with imperialism due to it's effect on self determination, as so would liberal nationalists, as they believe that all states should have Liberty.
Human Nature - Conservative nationalists hold a pessimistic view of human nature, as they believe this is the reason why people seek security within the nation. Racial expansionist nationalists would also be pessimistic about human nature, as they believe in nations being formed from ethnicities and groups which have characteristics that make them better than others, thus suggesting that others not in these groups are "not as good". However, Liberal Nationalists would be against human imperfection, as this implies that humans are not capable of looking after themselves, while liberal nationalists support self government. Socialist Nationalists also believe in self rule / determination of states.
Equality - Liberal nationalists are against foreign domination of other states and hegemony, and believe that all states should be equal as they should all have Liberty. Social Nationals also believe that nations should be equal, as they believe that nations should be independent from one another, and thus this would put them theoretically on the same totem pole.
Unity within Nations - Conservative Nationalists strongly enhance the need for national unity, as they believe this provides security, which people need as a result of human imperfection. Racial Nationalists also believe to an extent in unity, as they believe that ethnicities can come together as part of one state alone.