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Gross II - Exam II - Lungs
Terms in this set (81)
The ________ main bronchus is shorter, wider, and more vertical than the _______ main bronchus.
The right main bronchus passes under the arch of this structure and gives off the superior lobar bronchus before entering the hilum of the lung.
The right main bronchus gives off the superior lobar bronchus before entering the _________.
middle and inferior
Once inside the hilum, the right main bronchus divides into these lobar bronchi.
The 3 lobar bronchi of the right lung divide into _____ segmental bronchi.
The ______ main bronchus is longer, narrower, and more horizontal than the ______ main bronchus.
The left main bronchus passes anterior to the ________ before it divides into superior and inferior lobar bronchi within the hilum.
The left main bronchus divides into the superior and inferior lobar bronchi within the ______.
The superior and inferior lobar bronchi of the left lung divide into _____ segmental bronchi.
When children aspirate small objects, they usually enter the ______ main bronchus, due to its short, wide, vertical arrangement.
This is the lowest point in the tracheobronchial tree where the cough reflex is mechanically initiated.
Once the object passes the carina, coughing stops, but chemical ___________ and ___________ may ensue.
inferior thyroid artery and bronchial arteries
These supply blood to the trachea.
vagus nerve and sympathetic trunk
This is the nervous supply to the trachea.
Each lung has ____ surfaces.
This is the outer surface of the lungs.
This surface of the lungs lie against the heart and aorta.
This is the lower surface of the lungs.
Each lung has _____ borders.
This border of the lung is narrow and sharp.
This border of the lung is broad and rounded.
This border of the lung encircles the diaphragmatic surface.
The hilum is on the _________ surface of the lung, and is the opening through which the vessels, nerves, and bronchi pass.
The ______ of the lung is formed by the structures which pass through the hilum.
heart and trachea
The root of the lung connects the lung to the:
The bronchi, pulmonary vessels (arteries and veins), bronchial vessels, nerves and lymphatics are all located in the ______ of the lung.
The root of the lung is covered with ________ ________.
The root of the lung is covered with parietal pleura, which is prolonged downward as a double layered membrane called the:
Each lung has _______ bronchopulmonary segments.
oblique and horizontal
These are the fissure(s) located on the right lung.
These are the fissure(s) located on the left lung.
This lobe of the right lung is located above the horizontal fissure.
This lobe of the right lung is located between the horizontal and oblique fissures.
This lobe of the right lung is located below the oblique fissure.
azygos vein, esophagus, superior vena cava, right brachiocephalic vein
The right lung contains the grooves for what structures?
On the right lung, the cardiac impression is _________.
This is a tongue-like feature located on the left lung.
This is an indentation located just above the lingula of the left lung.
On the left lung, the cardiac impression is ______.
aorta, left subclavian artery
The left lung has grooves for what structures?
These are the functional units of the lung.
A segmental bronchus, branch of the pulmonary artery, segment of lung tissue, and surrounding septum are the components of each:
Bronchopulmonary segments are clinically important as they can be surgically removed without affecting the functioning of:
The blood supply to the lungs is the bronchial arteries from the:
azygos and accessory hemiazygos veins
The venous supply from the lungs is the bronchial arteries to the:
In the trachea and each main bronchus, the primary tissue type is:
Each lobar bronchi is made up of this primary tissue type.
The segmental bronchi and bronchioles are primarily composed of this tissue type.
The alveoli of the lungs are made up of this primary tissue type.
This is a condition where the segmental bronchi are inflamed.
This is a condition where the bronchioles are inflamed.
This is a condition where the alveoli are inflamed.
The anterior and posterior ________ ________ lie in front of and behind the root of the lung.
vagus (parasympathetic and sensory) and sympathetic trunk (T2-T5, sympathetic and sensory)
The anterior and posterior pulmonary plexuses are formed by fibers from the:
parasympathetic and sensory
The fibers from the vagus nerve that contribute to the anterior and posterior pulmonary plexuses have this function.
sympathetic and sensory (T2 to T5)
The fibers from the sympathetic trunk that contribute to the anterior and posterior pulmonary plexuses have this function.
__________ activation produces bronchial dilation.
__________ activation produces vasoconstriction (increasing BP).
Sympathetic activation __________ glandular secretion.
___________ activation produces bronchial constriction.
___________ activation produces vasodilation.
Parasympathetic activation __________ glandular secretion.
This is an obstructive airway disease characterized by coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.
segmental bronchi and bronchioles
Asthma is caused by spasms of the smooth muscle which lies in the:
Smooth muscle spasms in asthma are accompanied by excessive secretion of:
________ asthma is triggered by allergies.
________ asthma is triggered by non-allergic stimuli such as cold, stress, or exercise.
Chiropractic clinicians have noted that asthma is often associated with these types of subluxations. Adjustments often bring relief from asthma.
Sympathetics originate from these vertebral levels.
These vertebral levels supply the adrenal medulla, which secretes epinephrine, a potent bronchodilator.
pulmonary and bronchopulmonary nodes
Lymph from the lungs drains into these nodes located in the hilum.
After leaving the hilum, lymph from the lungs drains into the pulmonary and bronchopulmonary nodes and eventually the:
Respiratory epithelium is:
This is how mucus and dirt are moved up and out of the larynx.
This is a primary tumor of the bronchus. They are directly related to cigarette smoking and air pollution.
Bronchogenic carcinomas often causes enlargement of this node.
Lung cancer may cause damage to this nerve, which would in turn paralyze half of the diaphragm.
Lung cancer may cause damage to this nerve. It is located at the apex of the lung, resulting in paralysis in half of the lung.
Bronchogenic carcinomas are highly metastatic and spread quickly to:
__________ diseases such as bronchogenic carcinoma or lung infections may refer pain to upper or middle thoracic cord segments.
Both sympathetic and vagal branches to the lungs contain _______ fibers.
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