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Election of 1920
Democrat James Cox ran against Republican Warren G. Harding who was unclear where he stood, "return to normalcy", Harding elected in a landslide
three Republican presidents would control the executive branch, Congress was solidly Republican too
death of Roosevelt combined with disillusionment over the war lead to return of conservative Republicans, accepted the idea of limited government regulation as an aid to stabilize business, agencies run by those sympathetic to business, nation would benefit if business were put in front
Warren G. Harding
had been a newspaper publisher, handsome, well-liked, abilities were less than presidential
Harding approved reduction in income tax, increase in tariff rates, establishment of Bureau of the Budget
Bureau of the Budget
created by Harding, procedures for all government expenditures to be placed in a single budget for Congress to review and vote on
Teapot Dome Scandal
under Harding, Secretary of Interior Albert fall had accepted bribes for leasing oil, Daugherty took bribes for agreeing not to prosecute certain subjects
Harry M. Dougherty
Attorney General who took bribes for agreeing not to prosecute certain criminal suspects
won popularity by breaking up Boston police strike, "Silent Cal", "business of America is business"
Election of 1924
Coolidge was overwhelming choice of Republican party, Democrats nominated John W. Davis who tried to make Teapot Dome an issue, Coolidge won easily
Vetoes and Inaction
Coolidge believed in limited government, stood aside while business conducted its affairs, cut spending to bone, vetoed acts of Republicans in Congress
Election of 1928
Hoover nominated by Republicans, Alfred E. Smith was democratic nominee, Hoover promised "Coolidge Prosperity", won in a landslide, even took states in the South because of general dislike of Smith
governor of New York, Democrat nominee in 1928, battled Hoover, Roman Catholic, opponent of prohibition, appealed to immigrant votes
Mixed Economic Development
brief recession, then business prosperity from 1922-1928, then economic disaster in 1929, indoor plumbing and central heating became common, electricity, real income increased substantially
greater use of research and Taylorism helped manufacturing process, Ford's assembly line
perfected a system for manufacturing automobiles by means of an assembly line, workers remained at one place all day and performed some simple operation over and over again, realized major gains in worker productivity
increased use of oil and electricity, oil used to power factories and gasoline for automobiles, 23% of US energy, electric motors in factories and appliances
1920s favored the growth of big business by offering corporate tax cuts and doing almost nothing to enforce the antitrust laws of the Progressive era
farmers didn't share Coolidge prosperity, artificially high crop prices and US government's policy of guaranteeing a minimum price of wheat and corn hurt farmers after the war, new technologies like chemical fertilizers helped but din't fix problems
union movement went backwards in the 1920s, membership declined 20%, most companies insisted on open shop, welfare capitalism, strong resistance from police
voluntarily offering their employees improved benefits and higher wages in order to remove the need for organizing unions
United Mine Workers
led by John L. Lewis, suffered setbacks in a series of violent and unsuccessful strikes in PA, WV, KY
high school kids showed rebellion against elders' culture by dancing to music, African American musicians showed symbol of "new" and "modern" culture
electricity enabled millions of Americans to purchase new appliances, automobiles, advertising expanded as shops could appeal to status and popularity of products, customers bought on CREDIT
Impact of Automobile
average of one car per American family, replaced railroad industry as key indicator of economic growth, led to growth of other industries like steel, glass, rubber, gasoline, etc., affected everything people did socially, dating, commuting, etc., injuries and deaths, traffic, etc.
new medium suddenly appeared, first station went on air in 1920, broadcast music, over 800 stations by 1930, NBC, CBS, provided networks that enabled people to listen to the same programs as people across the country
centered in Hollywood, CA, became big business in 1920s, became national habit, stars like Greta Garbo and Rudolf Valentino were idolized, "palaces" built for the public
Americans shifted viewpoint to larger-than-life celebrities rather than politicians, Jack Dempsey, Gertrude Ederle, Jim Thorpe, Babe Ruth, Bobby Jones
young aviator who flew nonstop from Long Island to Paris in 1927, huge welcome parades, etc.
Women at Home
traditional separation of labor between men and women continued, most middle-class women expected to spend their lives at home, washing machine and vacuum cleaner made t easier but didn't change routine
Women in Work Force
participation remained about the same as before the war, employed women were limited to certain jobs, clerks, nurses, teachers, etc.
Revolution in Morals
young men and women revolting against sexual taboos, influenced by Sigmund Freud, others took to premarital sex, movies and dances increased promiscuity, use of contraceptives was still against law
work of her and other advocates of birth control achieved growing acceptance of contraceptives in the 1920s
women influenced by movie actresses, shocked elders by wearing dresses at their knees, cutting their hair short, smoking cigarettes, driving cars, took jobs in office
laws were changed to allow women to escape abusive and incompatible husbands, one in six marriages ended this way by 1930
widespread belief in the value stimulated more states to enact compulsory school laws, number of high school graduates had doubled
took changing roles of women, Social Gospel movement, scientific knowledge, Protestants defined their faith in new ways, historical and critical view of certain Bible passages and believed they could accept Darwin's theory without abandoning their faith
creationism explained the origin of all life, God created the universe in seven days blame for liberal views of modernists for decline in morals
Revivalists on the Radio
preached a fundamentalist message, Billy Sunday attacked drinking, gambling, dancing
leading writers of postwar decade, scorned religion as hypocritical, war was fraud led by war interests, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Sinclair Lewis, Ezra Pound, TS Eliot, Eugene O'Neill expressed disillusionment with the ideals of an earlier time and with materialism of a business-oriented culture
Frank Lloyd Wright
expanded on idea of functionalism, architects followed this philosophy in building skyscrapers with little decoration
largest African-American community, 200,000 African Americans, became famous for talented actors, artists, musicians, writers, Langston Hughes, James Weldon Johnson, Claude McKay, jazz age resulted from popularity of Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong, Bessie Smith, Paul Robeson
UNIA, advocated individual and racial pride for African Americans and developed political ideas of black nationalism, established organization for black separatism, economic self-sufficiency, BACK-TO-AFRICA MOVEMENT
teacher in Tennessee focused the debate between fundamentalists and modernists, taught evolution in his high school class, persuaded by ACLU
Clarence Darrow defended Scopes, questioned prosecutor Bryan and made him look foolish, Scopes was convicted, later overturned, laws banning teaching of evolution were rarely enforced
wartime concerns to conserve grain and concern for sober workforce led Congress to pass the 18th amendment, strictly prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic berages
many people kept drinking, it became fashionable to defy the law, bootleg liquor sold, Harding served alcoholic beverages, Al Capone fought for control of bootlegging, led to beginnings of organized crime
Repeal of Prohibition
growing public resentment and clear evidence of increasing criminal activity, coming of Great Depression, appeals were heard, 21st amendment ratified in 1933
huge flow of foreigners came, Catholics and Jews from eastern and southern Europe, native-born Protestants were outraged, feared competition for jobs, wanted minimal contact with Europe
Quota Act of 1921
limited immigration to 3% of the number of foreign-born persons from a given nation in 1910 Census
Quota Act of 1924
set quotas of 2% based on Census of 1890 (before most "new immigrants" had come), ended tradition of unrestricted immigration
Sacco and Vanzetti Trial
two Italian immigrants who had been convicted of robbery and murder, liberals protested the men were innocent, had been accused because they were poor and anarchists, executed in 1927
Ku Klux Klan
most extreme expression of nativism, founded in 1915 as strong in midwest as in south, directed efforts against Catholics, Jews, foreignors, etc.
used methods for terrorizing anyone labeled as "un-American", dressed in white hoods, punished victims with whips, tar and feathers, even hangman's nose"
many appeared to tolerate the Klan because it vowed to uphold high standards of Christian morality, would drive out bootleggers, fraud and corruption in the Klan led to its decline
Fictions of Isolation
US foreign policy couldn't be isolationist, Americans were fearful of being pulled into another war, but they actively pursued arrangements in foreign affairs
1921 Hughes held talks on naval disarmament, hoped to stabilize size of armies, three agreements were important
nations with five largest navies agreed to maintain ratios with respect to largest warships, US 5, GB 5, Japan 3, France 1.67, Italy 1.67
all nine nations represented at the conference agreed to respect Open Door policy by guaranteeing territorial integrity of China
signing of a treaty, almost all nations of the world signed it, renounced the aggressive use of force to achieve national ends, would prove ineffective because it permitted defensive wars and failed to provide for action taken against violators
Coolidge negotiated a peaceful resolution negotiating Coolidge's ambassador to Mexico, US troops withdrawn from Dominican Republic, American investments more than doubled
oil reserves here were recognized as huge source of wealth, Hughes succeeded in winning oil-drilling right for US companies
increased duties on foreign manufactured goods by 25 percent, protective of US business interests in short run, but destructive in long run, European nations were slow to recover from war and had difficulty repaying their debts
War Debts and Reparations
US had been a debtor nation before WWI, emerged as creditor nation, having lent $10 billion to Allies, Harding and Coolidge insisted that Britain and France pay back every penny of their debts, British and French objected, pointed out they suffered much worse losses than Americans did
established a cycle of payments from the US to Germany and from Germany to the Allies, Germany could rebuild its economy and pay back reparations to Britain and France, who could then use the reparations to pay back the war debt, helped to ease financial problems on both sides, ultimately led to bad feelings on all sides for those who couldn't pay back debts
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