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24 terms

Chapter 13: The Old Regime: absolutism and Enlightment

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Commercial Revolution
the expansion of the trade and buisness that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th century) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Free Enterprise
the freedom of individuals to start and operate private businesses in search of profits
Henry VIII
English king that left the catholic church and started the Church of England
Thomas Hobbes
believed that people are born selfish and need a strong central authority
Divine Right
belief that a ruler's authority comes directly from God
Louis XVI
french king who was overthrown and executed in the french revolution
Absolutism
a system in which a ruler holds total power
English Civil War
fought to decide whether the king or parliament ran the government, war ended with death of charles and kingship was abolished
Limited Monarchy
government in which a constitution or legislative body limits the monarch's powers
English Bill of Rights
document that gave England a government based on a system of laws and a freely elected parliament
John Locke
believed all people have a right to life, liberty, and property
William BlAckstone
English lawyer/judge who wrote about English law
Scientific Revolution
reason and observation
Scientific Method
a series of steps that scientists use to answer questions and solve problems
Sir Isaac Newton
English scientist who discovered gravity
Robert Boyle
Founder of modern chemistry
Enlightenment
Age of Reason
Thomas Jefferson
Wrote the Declaration of Independence
Voltaire
enlighment thinkers whose views on religious toleration and intellectual freedom influenced leaders of the american and french revolution
Baron de Montesquieu
believed government should have separation of powers
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
wrote The Social Contract
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
Enlightened Despotism
system of government in which absolute monarchs ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment