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Commercial Revolution

the expansion of the trade and buisness that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.


an economic system (Europe in 18th century) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests

Free Enterprise

the freedom of individuals to start and operate private businesses in search of profits

Henry VIII

English king that left the catholic church and started the Church of England

Thomas Hobbes

believed that people are born selfish and need a strong central authority

Divine Right

belief that a ruler's authority comes directly from God

Louis XVI

french king who was overthrown and executed in the french revolution


a system in which a ruler holds total power

English Civil War

fought to decide whether the king or parliament ran the government, war ended with death of charles and kingship was abolished

Limited Monarchy

government in which a constitution or legislative body limits the monarch's powers

English Bill of Rights

document that gave England a government based on a system of laws and a freely elected parliament

John Locke

believed all people have a right to life, liberty, and property

William BlAckstone

English lawyer/judge who wrote about English law

Scientific Revolution

reason and observation

Scientific Method

a series of steps that scientists use to answer questions and solve problems

Sir Isaac Newton

English scientist who discovered gravity

Robert Boyle

Founder of modern chemistry


Age of Reason

Thomas Jefferson

Wrote the Declaration of Independence


enlighment thinkers whose views on religious toleration and intellectual freedom influenced leaders of the american and french revolution

Baron de Montesquieu

believed government should have separation of powers

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

wrote The Social Contract

Adam Smith

Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)

Enlightened Despotism

system of government in which absolute monarchs ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment

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