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A criterion of abnormal behaviour based on an infrequency of occurrence in members of a population (talking to yourself happens infrequently etc.)

Statistical Deviance

A criterion of abnormal behaviour based on an infrequency of occurrence in members of a population (talking to yourself happens infrequently etc.), A criterion of abnormality stating that a behavior is abnormal if it occurs infrequently among the members of a population

Cultural Deviation

Compares behaviour with cultural norms, behaviour is abnormal if it violates societal standards.

Emotional Distress

A criterion of abnormality stating that abnormal behaviors are those that lead to personal distress or emotional upset.


Behaviour is abnormal if it impairs functionality.

Medical model

The view that abnormal behaviour is symptomatic of an underlying "curable" disease, the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, the medical model assumes that these mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital.

Sociological Model

The view that abnormalities is a label that each society assigns to behaviours that it finds unacceptable, even if the behaviours are not criminal in nature


A manual used for the diagnosis nd treatment of psychological disorders, split into five axes

Anxiety Disorders

class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

an anxiety disorder characterized by chronic free-floating anxiety and such symptoms as tension or sweating or trembling of light-headedness or irritability etc that has lasted for more than six months

Panic disorder

A condition marked, an anxiety disorder characterized by unpredictable panic attacks


Fear of outdoors, public or large open spaces


Anxiety disorder that , an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)

Social Phobia

Incapacitating fear of social interaction

Specific phobic disorder

A highly focused fear of a specific object or situation

Somatoform disorders

disorders characterized by physical symptoms for which no known physical cause exists


a somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease

Somatization disorder

A type of somatoform disorder marked by a history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin.

conversion disorder

a rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found

dissociative disorders

a class of disorders, disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings

dissociative amnesia

The sudden loss of memory for significant personal information

dissociative fugue

disorder in which one travels away from home and is unable to remember details of his past, including often his identity

dissociative identity disorder

a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.

mood disorders

class of psychological disorders involving disturbances in mood states, such as major depression and bipolar disorder

major depressive episode

A type of mood disorder characterized by depressed mood and other symptoms

bipolar disorder

a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania

manic state

A disordered state in which the person becomes hyperactive, talkative, and has a decreased need for sleep; a person in a manic state may engage in activities that are self-destructive or dangerous


severe and chronic psychological disorder characterized by disturbances in thinking, perception, emotions, and behavior

personality disorders

psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

paranoid personality disorder

type of personality disorder characterized by extreme suspiciousness or mistrust of others

dependent personality disorder

personality disorder in which the person is unable to make choices and decisions independently and cannot tolerate being alone, needs to be taken care of

antisocial personality disorder

a personality disorder characterized by repeated criminal behaviour and the failure to learn from punishment


A personality disorder characterized by a lack of remorse, empathy, anxiety, and other social emotions; the use of deceit and manipulation; and impulsive thrill seeking.

perfectionist personality disorder

Personality disorder characterized by an excessive and rigid need to achieve the highest level of quality in achievements.

bio-psycho-social perspective

a contemporary perspective which assumes that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders

learned helplessness

condition in which repeated attempts to control a situation fail, resulting in the belief that the situation is uncontrollable

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