OPTE Instruction & Assessment
Terms in this set (86)
is a combination of one's attitudes, experiences and knowledge which already exists.
Activating Prior knowledge
Word association task. Writing a term on the board at the beginning of a new unit can be a good way to see what students associate the term with. It is also beneficial so teachers can see what students have learned and plan the unit accordingly.
Activating Prior Knowledge #2
Using analogies or figures of speech that the students may use without even knowing it.
are opinions or conceptions formed before adequate knowledge or experience has been assessed.
They are often prejudices or biases.
It is important to assess student's preconceptions of classrooms because the rules between each room differ with the teacher.
1st - teachers should pay attention to the knowledge that students are bringing in the classroom & be aware of cultural differences.
is an aspect of everything that is taught, whether or not teachers are aware of it.
The gestures, words and objects are all a part of culture.
is a valuable skill to learn in the classroom because it will often lead to higher levels of productivity and satisfaction with work, as students will have had more influence on the result.
Having the task to be broken up into small, doable tasks is a better way to encourage success.
Students need a variety of learning activities & strategies in order to be able to explore the concepts in the best way possible.
They need to be made aware of all the possible ways to manipulate and consider the ideas in the concept.
This would work well with well in a classroom with a wide variety of students because it is most independently guided work.
uses results from an instrument based on a standardized system that limits the collection of data to a preset amount of possible responses.
More commonly known as a standardized test (multiple choice answers)
This test is more concerned with details of performance & can be used as a pre & post subject assessment of performance after knowledge on a certain topic has been studied.
Concepts are being tested, not just facts and ideas.
are concerned with problem solving and understanding.
students should be able to show their understanding of a topic studied that falls in line with certain curriculum goals.
Can provide a measure of achievement as well as track a teachers progress with an individual student.
*Hands on tasks
Self-Evaluation is also important as students have to be critical of themselves and the process it took them to get the finished result.
Key words should be underlined by the teacher or the teacher could read the directions aloud & ask if there are any questions.
the grading scale could be altered to account for students with lower cognitive functioning that may know some of the concepts, but not all of them.
extended test time with supervision could be determined to be appropriate depending on the student & his IEP.
completing an outline could be an option, or having the student verbalize answers onto a tape recorder or having someone else transcribe their answers.
for some tests, formulas, sample problems, dictionaries, or computers may be used to facilitate the test taking process.
is defined as the pursuit of relevant, reasonable & reliable knowledge about the world that is focused on what one should believe or do.
*Ask appropriate questions
*Collect information that is relevant
*Sort through the gathered information
*Come to certain conclusion
Is higher order thinking
enables someone to decide which political candidate to vote for, assess the dangers of gun violence and many other tasks that are studied in school.
Lower Order Thinking
checking to see whether one received the correct change or being able to tie ones shoes.
Characteristics of a critical thinker
*organizes thoughts in order to be able to articulate them.
*Uses evidence relevantly and objectivity.
*Only makes a judgement when all evidence has been presented.
*Understands that there are different degrees of belief.
*Sees hidden similarities and analogies.
* Learns independently
*Applies previous knowledge to new situations to solve problems.
*Can see irrelevances in verbal arguments & rephrase them concisely.
*Questions ones own views & attempts to assess why those views are held.
*Is sensitive to the difference between intensities & validates of beliefs.
*Is aware that ones knowledge is limited.
*Recongnizes that one's opinions are not always right and they contain bias & that there is danger of including personal preferences in the consideration of evidence.
is defined as the process by which we derive a new idea.
It is the merging of new ideas that have not been combined before.
is something that can be naturally learned.
Processes of creative thinking
can either be accomplished accidentally, deliberately or by an ongoing process.
Accidental Creative Thinking
it's usually by a chance encounter where one tries something one might not have tried in a different situation.
Deliberate Creative Thinking
can be used to create new ideas from a structure.
Example: students may be given a list of 5 things to include in a story, from which countless stories could emerge.
Ongoing Creative Thinking
is a process that develops through self awareness and education. It's a process by which seeking improvement never ends.
Example: a student working on a short story will have to have a sustained level of creative thinking to be able to finish the story successfully.
Lower order thinking skills Blooms Taxonomy
Knowledge, Comprehension & Application.
These skills are more focused on observations and ability to summarize ideas learned.
Higher order thinking skills Blooms Taxonomy
analysis, synthesis & evaluation.
The ability to see things figuratively instead of literally becomes important.
provides teachers with starting words for questions in order to ensure that students are being challenged at all levels, which caters to multiple intelligence, as well as making sure students are attempting a variety of work.
this level tests previously learned material & may involve a wide range of materials. It relies heavily on memorization as all it requires is the appropriate information.
Terms: list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when and where.
this level assesses the ability to grasp the meaning of the material learned that may be shown by interpretation and prediction.
Terms: Summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss and extend.
this is the ability to use learned information in new situations. This may be shown in the application of rules, concepts and theories.
Terms: apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment and discover.
this level represents the ability to break down material into its parts so that it's organization can be looked at. It may include the identification and labeling of its parts, analyzing these parts or recognizing how they are organized.
Terms: analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select and infer.
by putting parts together to form a new whole is the ability of synthesis tested. It may involve making a speech, a research proposal or identifying a set of abstractions.
Terms: combine, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize and rewrite.
this level tests the ability to judge the value of a material for a certain purpose. It may be based on its organization, on internal criteria, or on some external criteria; the relevance of its purpose.
Terms: assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare and summarize.
focus on emphasizing ways to enhance students intrinsic nature to make sense of the world around them.
Students do this by learning & organizing information, problem solving & finally developing the concepts and language to convey what they see.
is defined as the process by which learning occurs through one's own efforts. In the classroom, this type of learning happens mostly through structured activities set by the teacher that require students to discover important relationships between ideas or concepts by manipulation, investigation and exploration. Higher order thinking.
is defined as a meaningful learning experience that occurs when students construct and apply their own meaning to knowledge based on their own subjective experiences and background knowledge of a topic.
Ausubel's reception learning
this type of learning requires the ability to receive and process structured information as received by the teacher.
Problem Solving in the Classroom
1. Identify the problem
2. Look for possible causes of the problem
3. Coming up with as many ideas as possible for solving the problem.
4. Which is the best way to deal with it.
5. Come up with an action plan in case the solution doesn't work.
6. Monitor how the problem solving is going.
7. Finalize how the problem has been solved & if it has done so clearly.
is using small groups that work together in order to maximize the level of every students learning process.
When done correctly, all members of the group will assist each other so that everyone is able to succeed.
Cooperatve Learning in the Classroom
is a strategy that can be used in the classroom to increase the level of positive interdependence among students. It teaches them that everyone has strengths & when these resources are used that everyone can benefit from them.
can increase levels of self-esteem, lead to higher levels of productivity & achievement & create a a positive classroom environment.
is defined as the procedure that is led by the teacher & is followed by the students. Students are given specific instructions on what they are supposed to do.
Madeline Hunter Direct Instruction Model
Anticipatory Set, Objectives, Teaching, Guided Practice, Checking for understanding, Independent practice, Closure.
is a teaching approach that is based on inductive thinking. It states that students work individually to learn the basic principles taught in a lesson. Students learn through their own experiences and thought processes.
Whole Group Discussion
consists of the teacher & the students, where the students are usually contributing comments that are directed by the teacher.
is the theory by which learners acquire knowledge solely through their own efforts & through this develop the ability for inquiry & critical thinking.
is when students are taught & able to understand, the underlying relationships that connect what is taught in each subject.
It allows students to learn the information multiple times & the very repetition of the material will improve the learning of the students alone.
3 ways Interdisciplinary Instruction can take place
1. Thematic Unit
2. Curricular connections
3. Thinking Skills Development
Developing Interdisciplinary Lessons
1. Ensure that the objectives of the lesson are clear at the beginning of the lesson.
2. Selecting the content that will serve as the basis for the lesson, whether it be literature or a scientific principle.
3. Identify other disciplines that related to the original idea, either with colleagues or on your own.
4. Determine how the 2 or more disciplines correspond with the objectives in mind.
is used by teachers when they want to represent knowledge, ideas or facts in a graphs or visual organizers.
It can be done to brainstorm before a task is started, convey complex ideas, design a complex structure, assess understanding, measure where knowledge has not taken place or aid learning by mixing both old and new knowledge.
combining of old concepts & new concepts into existing cognitive patterns, something that can occur readily in concept mapping.
implies that involvement in learning leads to understanding. It involves possessing and developing skills that allow you to find solutions to problems and issues while you are building on the knowledge you already possess.
Advantages of Inquiry Method
students are able to see how activities within a certain subject relate to other subjects.
Example: persevering through a grammar problem can encourage them to try the same approach when solving a math problem.
Uses higher order thinking skills
Small Group Work
a small group of students who work together in order to complete a task or a series of tasks.
It helps practice social skills, problem solving & communication skills in order to complete the tasks.
enables students to work at both the lower level and higher level orders of thinking as they often have to summarize, apply and synthesize their knowledge together in order to be successful. Students also move at their own pace & receive directions from their peers in order to improve their learning.
is a set of teaching strategies that help teachers guide students through real world topics in an in depth way.
an excursion whereby students physically go and participate in an activity related to their topic of study, have been in use for a long time as a part of educational programming.
Students and Internet
there should be clear guidelines given to the students before the Internet is used, to prevent misuse. If they are using it for research, for instance, it can be helpful to compile a list of relevant websites for them to then narrow down.
Virtual Field Trips
are designed to be educational & entertaining and many of these sites can be included in small group work, independently or as homework or extra credit assignments.
is the best method of teaching, learning and reflecting that when used a teaching methodology, fits into the category of experimental education.
is different from the traditional sense of curriculum that the teacher plans before the students starts school, based upon the goals of the school district or the state.
make the course provide focused, consistent & clear evaluation criteria.
Students will know what to expect & what is expected of them.
is an approach that challenges preconceived notions and is an activist approach of eliminating sociological maladies in education such as sexism, homophobia, ageism, racism, etc.
in education is defined as a set of courses & their contents offered by a school which can be determined by an individual school, local school district or state.
are the accumulation of all the goals, objectives and topics of the curriculum in all areas of the school.
is a clear and unambiguous description of the expectations for the students that will set out which behaviors are acceptable and which behaviors are not.
3 Parts of a Behavioral Objective
1. Student behavior
2. Conditions of performance
3. Performance Criteria
These objectives will refer to intellectual learning & problem solving as the cognitive levels are knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
The affective domain refers to the emotional & value systems of students. These are learned by receiving, responding, valuing, organizing and characterizing a value. It could be an objective for students to be able to receive constructive criticism & to better their performance.
This refers to movement characteristics & capabilities & could be used as a way for students to use different ways in order to present their information. It involves the use of motor skills, whether small or gross & can add a 3 dimensional aspect to the way students learn.
General Learner Outcomes
are the goals that are set for all grade levels & in all academic disciplines. They aim to help the students live productive and enriching lives.
can be used in situations where the teacher wants to monitor student progress.
occurs when skills and strategies have been taught in the classroom as a part of a unit or activity.
is generally the time that students use spend outside the classroom completing assigned activities such as practices, reviews, or applied skills learned in the classroom.
are periods of time in which the activity moves from one stage to another.
are authentic assessment tools that are used to measure the work of students.
Standard Error of Measure
the estimate of the error associated with the test takers obtained score when compared with their hypothetical real score.
is an original datum that has not been transformed.
is a dimensionless quantity derived from the raw score.
is a standardized score, that is, it is based upon the normal distribution & standard deviation units.
the cutoff score on a criterion referenced or mastery level. people who score at or above the cutoff score are considered to have mastered the material.
Adequate Yearly Progress
is the term which the No Child Left Behind Act uses to explain that a child's school has met state reading and goals.
Supplemental Educational Services (SES)
is the term which the No Child Left Behind Act uses to refer to the tutoring and extra help with schoolwork in subjects such as reading and math that children from low income families may be eligible to recieve.
Highly Qualified Teacher (HQT)
is the term which the No Child Left Behind Act uses for a teacher who proves that he or she knows the subjects he or she is teaching, has a college degree, & is state certified.
a measure of the range of values in a set of numbers.
Is a statistic used as a measure of the dispersion or variation in a distribution, equal to the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviations of the arithmetic mean.
Grade Equivalent Score
actually measures is how typical students at the grade level specified would perform on the test that has been given.
Inquiry Based Learning
it is a part of a multiple intelligence work because it reinforces the fact that all students learn differently & provides them with opportunities to learn in the best way for them.