8.2 -10.2 mg/dl
essential for proper functioning of the cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and endocrine systems, as well as blood clotting and bone and teeth formation.
Low (hypocalcemia): secondary to: abuse of laxatives, renal failure, low dietary calcium or Vit. D intake, excessive magnesium intake.
Result of low Ca: osteoporosis, muscle spasms / tetany, calcium deposits in tissue; cardiac arrhythmia, asystole
High (hypercalcemia): overuse of antacids containing calcium;
Result of high Ca:
thirst; polyuria; renal stones; decreased muscle tone and DTRs; tachycardia; cardiac arrhythmia, asystole