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-percentage of erythrocytes in a volume of blood Female: 36-46%
Male: 42-52%
Increased = dehydrated
Decrease = over hydrated, anemia, blood loss
***Should be 3 times the Hgb


- blood test used to determine the concentration of oxygen-carrying components (hemoglobin) in red blood cells
Female: 12-15 g/dl
Male: 14-17 g/dl
Low values = Anemia, fluid retention, recent hemmorage
Increase-dehydration or polycythemia
**Should be 3 times the RBC

RBC Count

Female: 4 -5.5 million/mm3
Male: 4.5 - 6.2 million/mm3
Low values = Anemia: monitor for fatigue, dyspnea, tachycardia, tachypnea
High values: In COPD, may indicate Polycythemia, a compensation for pulmonary dysfunction that makes blood thicker, and increases risk of CVA, etc.

Total WBC Count

5,000 - 10,000 /mm3
> 10,000 indicates systemic infection (more than just local colonization)


200,000 - 500,000 /mm3


Female: 0.6 - 1.2 mg/dl
Male: 0.5 - 1.1 mg/dl
a blood test that measures the amount of creatinine in the blood.
-Decreased: Elderly values are lower because of reduced muscle mass, liver disease, not enough protein
-Increased: renal failure, acromegaly, giganti

Potassium (K)

3.5 - 5.0 mEq/l
Low (hypokalemia) vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, or use of loop diuretics,
Result of low K: ventricular arrhythmias

High (hyperkalemia) -renal or endocrine problem, anemia, mi, burn

Calcium (Ca)

8.2 -10.2 mg/dl
essential for proper functioning of the cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and endocrine systems, as well as blood clotting and bone and teeth formation.
Low (hypocalcemia): secondary to: abuse of laxatives, renal failure, low dietary calcium or Vit. D intake, excessive magnesium intake.
Result of low Ca: osteoporosis, muscle spasms / tetany, calcium deposits in tissue; cardiac arrhythmia, asystole
High (hypercalcemia): overuse of antacids containing calcium;
Result of high Ca:
thirst; polyuria; renal stones; decreased muscle tone and DTRs; tachycardia; cardiac arrhythmia, asystole

Sodium (Na)

136 -145 mEq/l
Low (hyponatremia) secondary to: fluid loss from diarrhea, vomiting, diaphoresis, diuretic use.
Result of low Na: postural hypotension, abdominal cramps, headache, fatigue, weakness

High (hypernatremia) secondary to: dehydration, high salt intake, poor renal function
Result of high Na: edema, tachycardia

Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG)

Tested after fasting: 70 - 110 mg/dL


Tests include: hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, platelet count, white Blood cell count


100-108 mEq/L
--Detects acid-base balance and evaluates fluid status-helps maintain osmotic balance
Decreased: metabolic acidosis, vomiting
Increased: dehydration, complete renal shutdown, head injury


1.8 - 2.6 mEq/L
Increased: renal failure, hypothyroidism, severe dehydration, Addison's disease.
Decrease-alcoholism, malabsorption, diarrhea


Test includes: calcium, chloride, magnesium, potassium, sodium


8-20 mg/dl
--Test kidney function & assess dehydation

Decreased: starvation, hepatic damage, overhydration.

Increased: renal failure, dehydration, urinary obstruction

Liver Panel

AST, ALT, ALP, Albumin, Total bilirubin, indirect and direct bilirubin


7.35- 7.45
measure of how acidic or basic a solution is; the scale ranges from below 0 to above 14; solution with pH above 7 is basic and a pH below 7 is acidic


positive test indicates that fats are being used by the body instead of carbohydrates, which occurs during starvation or an uncontrolled diabetic state


hardedned cell fragments, usually cylindrical, which are formed in the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, and then flushed out of the urinary tract. these form when the filtrate flow is slow, the pH is low or the salt concentration is high....all conditions which cause protein to denature


infections/immune status

H & H

fluid status and anemai




renal status


oxygenation status

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