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Typical Root Leaves Stem Types and Cross Section Tissue ID

Primary Root

first root that grows from plant seed when it germinates

Secondary Root

the roots that branch off of the primary root


An embryonic root of a plant.

Taproot System

A root system common to eudicots, consisting of one large, vertical root (the taproot) that produces many smaller lateral, or branch, roots.

Fibrous Root System

A root system common to monocots consisting of a mat of thin roots spreading out below the soil surface.

Vascular Cylinder

central region of a root that includes the vascular tissue-xylem and phloem

Monocot Stele

Identify which root stele

Dicot Stele

Identify which root stele


spongy layer of ground tissue just inside the epidermis of a root or stem


an outer layer of cells designed to provide protection


the woody part of plants: the supporting and water-conducting tissue, consisting primarily of tracheids and vessels


vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis


single layer of cells that form a waterproof seal around a root's vascular tissue; controls the flow of water and dissolved ions into the root

Casparian Strip

A water-impermeable ring of wax in the endodermal cells of plants that blocks the passive flow of water and solutes into the stele by way of cell walls.


Fatty material found in the cell walls of cork tissue and in the Casparian strip of the endodermis


A layer of cells just inside the endodermis of a root that may become meristematic and begin dividing again.


A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.


The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.

Vascular Bundle

plant stem/leaf structure that contains xylem and phloem tissue.


A cluster of vascular tissue in leaves


the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move

Guard Cells

The two cells that flank the stomatal pore and regulate the opening and closing of the pore.

Woody Dicot Stem

Identify this Cross Section

Herbaceous Dicot Stem

Identify this Cross Section

Herbaceous Monocot Stem

Identify this Cross Section

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