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c. Ground Beef

1. Oxymyoglobin is responsible for the bright cherry red color of________________.
a. apples
b. tomatoes
c. ground beef
d. red velvet cake

a. Before coagulation occurs, denaturation of proteins is sometimes reversible

2. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Before coagulation occurs, denaturation of proteins is sometimes reversible
b. Protein coagulation is reversible
c. Protein denaturation is never reversible
d. Protein denaturation is only caused by heating

d. the study of producing, processing, preparing, evaluating, and using food

3. Food science is ________________.
a. using the tools of modern genetics to improve plants, animals, and microorganisms for
food production
b. the study of how food is digested and absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and used in
intermediary metabolism
c. the study of mapping and sequencing all the genes of an organism
d. the study of producing, processing, preparing, evaluating, and using food

c. to control the pH in soft drinks

4. Tartaric acid is used ___________.
a. as a stabilizer for ice creams and soups
b. as an anticaking agent in powdered sugar
c. to control the pH in soft drinks
d. to inhibit mold growth in bread

d. Lactobacillus

5. The characteristic flavor of sourdough bread is from the microorganism called __________.
a. Aspergillus
b. Rhizopus
c. Corynebacterium
d. Lactobacillus

a. kilograys

6. When food is irradiated, the amount of radiation the food is exposed to during processing is
commonly measured in _______.
a. kilograys
b. kilograms
c. angstoms
d. joules

b. saturated

7. Fatty acids that have a long carbon chain in which every carbon atom carries a maximum number
of hydrogen atoms is called a(n) ______________ fatty acid.
a. unsaturated
b. saturated
c. monounsaturated
d. polyunsaturated

d. hydrogen ions

8. When acids dissolve in water, their molecules break apart and release __________ into the
solution to make the solution acidic.
a. hydroxide ions
b. chloride ions
c. sodium ions
d. hydrogen ions

a. detergent

9. During the cleaning and sanitizing process following food production, a company will use a
___________ which is a chemical compound designed to emulsify fat and solubilize food residue.
a. detergent
b. sanitizer
c. bacteriocide
d. a chlorine based solution

c. troubleshooting

10. A meat scientist cut open a cured ham and observed a brown spot the size of a penny near the
center of the ham and deduced that this was due to the ham being frozen in the center when the cure
was injected into the fresh ham. This ability to detect and solve problems is called ____________.
a. brainstorming
b. supervised experience
c. troubleshooting
d. applied statistics

b. D

11. While milk is in a holding or storage tank and after it has been adjusted for butterfat content, it is
fortified with vitamin______.
a. A
b. D
c. E
d. K

c. United States Department of Agriculture

12. When animals are harvested at a meat processing facility, mandatory antemortem and
postmortem inspection is conducted by the _____________.
a. United States Food and Drug Administration
b. United States Environmental Protection Agency
c. United States Department of Agriculture
d. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

b. higher protein-to-starch

13. Hard wheat flour will yield flour that has a _________________ ratio than that of flour from soft
a. higher starch-to-water
b. higher protein-to-starch
c. lower protein-to-starch
d. lower starch-to-water

b. convection

14. _______________ is a method of heat transfer where heat is transferred by circulatory
movement in a liquid or gas.
a. radiation
b. convection
c. conduction
d. induction

c. need to add 2 degrees to their temperature reading

15. A food scientist was calibrating a thermometer prior to measuring the internal temperature of a
product coming out of an impingement oven. To calibrate their thermometer, they placed the
thermometer in boiling water and the thermometer reading stated that the temperature was 102°C.
Since the food scientist only had this thermometer to use and they could not physically adjust the
thermometer for calibration, they __________________ when they take the temperature of the
a. need to subtract 2 degrees from their temperature reading
b. should use the thermometer temperature reading with no adjustment
c. need to add 2 degrees to their temperature reading
d. need to recalibrate the thermometer in an ice bath to find the adjustment value

a. Leaching

16. ___________ is a common term for the osmotic process that causes some water-soluble
components in vegetable to leave the vegetable for the surrounding medium during the canning
a. Leaching
b. Turgor
c. Stasis
d. Miscibility

c. caffeine

17. A compound that is found in many soft drinks has the chemical formula C8H10N4O2 and is called
a. table salt
b. sodium bicarbonate
c. caffeine
d. Aspartame

d. you can determine how the nutrients in a food serving fit with what you can or should
have for the day.

18. The term "Daily Value" that is found on a nutrition facts label means ___________.
a. the number of servings in a container
b. the amount of food in a serving
c. you can determine if the product contains none or an insignificant amount of a nutrient
d. you can determine how the nutrients in a food serving fit with what you can or should
have for the day.

d. ≥145°F

19. When food is prepared in a food service establishment, hot foods should be maintained at _____.
a. ≤120°F
b. ≥120°F
c. ≤145°F
d. ≥145°F

a. rancid

20. When the fat in walnuts begins to oxidize, the flavor of the walnut changes and becomes
a. rancid
b. sweet
c. bitter
d. sour

b. hard water

21. A manufacturer that produces baked beans might have challenges with their process if they use
_____________ because the beans will take longer than normal to cook, changing their overall
processing time
a. salt in the formulation
b. hard water
c. soft water
d. brown sugar in the formulation

b. olfactory organs

22. During the sensory analysis of chicken soup, _________ respond to odors in the form of steam
rising from the container of hot chicken soup.
a. taste buds
b. olfactory organs
c. auditory organs
d. vision receptors

c. Fructose

23. ________________ caramelizes at 110°C.
a. Sucrose
b. Glucose
c. Fructose
d. Galactose

d. 99.999

24. Processing a food product so that it receives a 5 D treatment means that __________ percent of
the microorganisms will be destroyed.
a. 99.0
b. 99.9
c. 99.99
d. 99.999

b. 23%

25. Food scientists often need to know how much solute a solution contains. What would be the
mass percent of sucrose in a solution if 23 g of sucrose was dissolved in 77 g of water?
a. 29.9%
b. 23%
c. 3.3%
d. 17.7%

a. carbon dioxide

26. The enzyme maltase in yeast cells helps in baking yeast bread because it acts as a catalyst for the
breakdown of maltose to simple sugars that are then metabolized to produce ____________ which
causes the dough to rise.
a. carbon dioxide
b. sodium bicarbonate
c. water
d. hydrogen ions

b. quickly

27. Freezing an ice cream mixture ________ will create very small ice crystals.
a. slowly
b. quickly
c. slowly or quickly
d. in an aerobic environment

b. dependent variable

28. Food scientists continually conduct experiments to test processing conditions. In an experiment
for a cookie company, a scientist tested spread of a cookie using butter or shortening to determine
which was best for minimizing the spread of a cookie. For this experiment, the spread of the cookie
would be considered a ___________________.
a. inductive variable
b. dependent variable
c. independent variable
d. deductive variable

c. chemical hazard

29. Based on the principles of HACCP, broccoli that is contaminated with a pesticide residue is an
example of a _______________.
a. biological hazard
b. physical hazard
c. chemical hazard
d. filth

a. the same, different

30. A mole of water, salt, and sugar cubes are __________ and the masses of each of these products
are __________________.
a. the same, different
b. different, the same
c. the same, the same
d. different, different

d. 25.85 kg

31. You are creating a new chocolate product and are using 57 pounds of cocoa powder in the
formulation. Your supervisor has asked that you convert the formulation from English units to
metric units. How much would the cocoa powder weigh in kilograms?
a. 125.66 kg
b. 2.59 kg
c. 12.57 kg
d. 25.85 kg

b. material safety data sheet

32. Whenever a chemical is used in a food processing lab, a(n) __________ must be available in
case of an accident.
a. autoclave
b. material safety data sheet
c. material specifications direction sheet
d. chemical sink

b. Andreas Sigismund Marggraf

33. A chemist, ____________, discovered that the sweetness of sugar beets and of cane sugar was
the result of the same chemical, sucrose.
a. Olivier de Serres
b. Andreas Sigismund Marggraf
c. Thomas Malthus
d. Harvey Washington Wiley

d. carbohydrates

34. Glycogen is the form of ________________ that is found in meat.
a. protein
b. fat
c. fatty acids
d. carbohydrates

a. Escherichia coli

35. ________________ is sometimes used as an indicator microorganism which means it can
provide an index of the sanitary quality of the product and may serve as an indicator of potential for
the presence of pathogenic species.
a. Escherichia coli
b. Staphylococcus aureus
c. Clostridium perfringens
d. Clostridium botulinum

c. homogenization

36. During the process of __________, fat particles break down and are surrounded by an emulsifier
that keeps the tiny particles permanently separated.
a. pasteurization
b. emulsification
c. homogenization
d. winterization

c. product line extension

37. The development of Gatorade® G Series Fit to be sold alongside of other Gatorade® products
would be considered a __________.
a. product rollout
b. market channel
c. product line extension
d. regional promotion

d. hydrogenated

38. Margarine is a plant oil that was ________________ to a semi-solid form to resemble an animal
fat product.
a. crystallized
b. lipidizated
c. solidicated
d. hydrogenated

a. United States Food and Drug Administration

39. The label on Red Bull Energy beverages must meet the requirements of the __________ for
a. United States Food and Drug Administration
b. United States Environmental Protection Agency
c. United States Department of Agriculture
d. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

c. psychrophile

40. Listeria monocytogenes is considered a _________________ since it can thrive and grow under
refrigeration temperatures.
a. mesophile
b. durophile
c. psychrophile
d. thermophile

b. Value-added

41. _______________ is an economic term for the transformation that occurs in a product from raw
material to finished product.
a. Free market
b. Value-added
c. Feasibility
d. Marketing

b. peanuts

42. Which of the following products would contain the lowest water content?
a. eggs
b. peanuts
c. cucumbers
d. beef steak

c. biotechnology

43. The use of biochemical techniques to alter the genetic makeup of a plant to enhance
characteristics for food production is called .
a. biophysics
b. biophysiology
c. biotechnology
d. biogenetics

d. vitamins and minerals

44. Processed food products such as cereals and juice may be supplemented with __________ to
enhance their nutritional content.
a. stabilizers
b. chelators
c. antioxidants
d. vitamins and minerals

a. hydrophobic

45. Oil and water separate when mixed together in some salad dressings due to the __________
portions of fatty acids in oil.
a. hydrophobic
b. hydroscopic
c. hydrophilic
d. hydraulic

a. aseptic processing

46. Juice packaged in a foil pouch is kept safe without refrigeration due to _________.
a. aseptic processing
b. retort canning
c. irradiation
d. fermentation

d. Preservation

47. _______ is the use of a process to allow a substance or food to keep its useful properties for a
longer than normal period.
a. Bioavailability
b. Deterioration
c. Bioinformatics
d. Preservation

b. in the absence of oxygen

48. A reaction that occurs____________ is called anaerobic.
a. in the presence of oxygen
b. in the absence of oxygen
c. in the presence or absence of oxygen
d. under an acidic pH

a. Staphylococcus aureus

49. _______________ causes a food intoxication and the toxin is not destroyed by heating a food.
a. Staphylococcus aureus
b. Listeria monocytogenes
c. Escherichia coli O157:H7
d. Salmonella enteritidis

c. a type of phytochemical

50. Carotenoids in pumpkins are considered _______________ because they have antioxidant
properties and may reduce cancer risk.
a. a form of fortification
b. isoflavones
c. a type of phytochemical
d. phytosterols

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