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Genetic Makeup

Combination of genes in an organism


The inherited combination of alleles


Having two different alleles for a trait


Having two identical alleles for a trait


An organism with two dominant or two recessive genes for a trait


An organism that has two different alleles for a trait


Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait


Trait of an organism that can be masked by the dominant form of a trait


Physical appearance of an organism

Punnett Square

A graphic used to predict the results of a genetic cross


The sex cells of an organism


A strong likelihood or chance of something happening

X Chromosome

The sex chromosome found in men and women; females have two x chromosomes (XX), males have one x and one Y(XY)

Y Chromosome

The sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.(XY)


A threadlike strand in the nucleus that controls cell
activity and carries genetic material to pass traits to offspring. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes.

Asexual Reproduction

The reproductive process that involves only
one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent.

Sexual Reproduction

The reproductive process that involves two
parents who combine their genetic material to produce a new
organism, which differs from both parents.


A fertilized egg.The result of sexual reproduction when each parent contributes half of the DNA necessary for the offspring


Transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure

Human Genome Project

First detailed map of every gene in the human ( approximately 20,000-25,000 genes); focus-to reverse human disease

Inherited Traits

Distinctive characteristics or behavior traits of parents or other relatives


Specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another


Basic building blocks of heredity which consist of DNA


An alternate form that a gene may have for a single trait; can be dominant or recessive


The study of how traits are inherited through the actions of alleles


Transmitted through genes from parents to offspring.


the young of a person, animal or plant

Gregor Mendel

Father of Genetics who studied sexual reproduction in pea plants.


Deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics

Sex Linked Trait

A trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y chromosome in humans


The classification of being male or female

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