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31 terms

Genetics Unit Quiz 04/20/2012

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Genetic Makeup
Combination of genes in an organism
Genotype
The inherited combination of alleles
Hetrozygous
Having two different alleles for a trait
Homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a trait
Purebred
An organism with two dominant or two recessive genes for a trait
Hybrid
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
Dominant
Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait
Recessive
Trait of an organism that can be masked by the dominant form of a trait
Phenotype
Physical appearance of an organism
Punnett Square
A graphic used to predict the results of a genetic cross
Gametes
The sex cells of an organism
Probability
A strong likelihood or chance of something happening
X Chromosome
The sex chromosome found in men and women; females have two x chromosomes (XX), males have one x and one Y(XY)
Y Chromosome
The sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.(XY)
Chromosome
A threadlike strand in the nucleus that controls cell
activity and carries genetic material to pass traits to offspring. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Asexual Reproduction
The reproductive process that involves only
one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent.
Sexual Reproduction
The reproductive process that involves two
parents who combine their genetic material to produce a new
organism, which differs from both parents.
Zygote
A fertilized egg.The result of sexual reproduction when each parent contributes half of the DNA necessary for the offspring
Pollination
Transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure
Human Genome Project
First detailed map of every gene in the human ( approximately 20,000-25,000 genes); focus-to reverse human disease
Inherited Traits
Distinctive characteristics or behavior traits of parents or other relatives
Trait
Specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another
Genes
Basic building blocks of heredity which consist of DNA
Allele
An alternate form that a gene may have for a single trait; can be dominant or recessive
Genetics
The study of how traits are inherited through the actions of alleles
Heredity
Transmitted through genes from parents to offspring.
Offspring
the young of a person, animal or plant
Gregor Mendel
Father of Genetics who studied sexual reproduction in pea plants.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
Sex Linked Trait
A trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y chromosome in humans
Gender
The classification of being male or female