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Oly AP English Literature: Poetry

Poetry Terms for Mrs. Madsen's Olympia High School's AP English 12 Literature
STUDY
PLAY
alliteration
use of the same sound at the beginning of each stressed syllable in a line of verse
assonance
the repetition of similar vowels in the stressed syllables of successive words (e.g. lake and fate; trodden and cobbles)
blank verse
unrhymed verse (usually in iambic pentameter)
cacophony
use of words and phrases that imply strong, unpleasant sounds
cadence
the accent in a metrical foot of verse or prose
caesura
a break or pause (usually for sense) in the middle of a verse line
conceit
simile or metaphor comparing two seemingly dissimilar things
connotation
an idea that is implied or suggested
consonance
the repetition of consonants (or consonant patterns) especially at the ends of words, but the vowels are usually different (car and cur or add and odd)
controlling image
an image or metaphor that runs throughout and determines the form or nature of a literary work
couplet
a stanza consisting of two successive lines of verse
dirge
a mournful poem that is usually short, a song or hymn of mourning composed or performed as a memorial to a dead person
dissonance
use of discordant sounds to either create unpleasant effect or create an interesting variation from what is rhythmically correct
dramatic monologue
a poem in which a speaker addresses a silent listener
elegy
a mournful poem that is usually long
end-stopped line
when poetry contains a pause in meaning (thus in reading) at the end of a line or a couplet; often marked by punctuation but not always
enjambment
the continuation of a syntactic unit from one line of verse into the next line without a pause
epic
a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds
euphony
any agreeable (pleasing and harmonious) sounds
foot
basis of meter, regular unit of meter when repeated, makes up a verse
free verse
unrhymed verse without a consistent metrical pattern
iamb
a metrical unit with unstressed-stressed syllables
image
representation of a sensory experience
imagery
the ability to form mental images of things or events
in medias res
"into the middle of things" beginning a narrative well along in a sequence of events; supplying information through flashbacks about the beginning
lyric
a brief, personal poem that is especially musical and filled with emotion; sonnets, odes, and elegies are types of lyrics
meter
rhythmic pattern of a poem
octave
a rhythmic group of eight lines of verse
ode
a poem usually addressed to a particular person, object or event that has stimulated deep and noble feelings in the poet
pentameter
a verse line having five metrical feet
persona
the speaker, voice, or character assumed by the author of a piece of writing
quatrain
a stanza or group of four lines of poetry
refrain
a regularly repeated line or group of lines in a poem or song
repetition
the repeated use of the same word or word pattern as a rhetorical device
rhyme
be similar in sound, especially with respect to the last syllable
end rhyme
rhyme that occurs at the end of two or more lines of poetry
external rhyme
two words that rhyme at the ends of separate lines
feminine rhyme
occurs when the rhyme ends on an unstressed syllable (i.e. "calling" and "falling")
internal rhyme
a rhyme between words in the same line
masculine rhyme
occurs when the rhyme ends on an stressed syllable (i.e. fan and ran)
scansion
analysis of verse into metrical patterns
sestet
group of six lines of poetry
sonnet
a verse form consisting of 14 lines with a fixed rhyme scheme
English sonnet
a sonnet consisting three quatrains and a concluding couplet in iambic pentameter with the rhyme pattern: abab cdcd efef gg
Italian sonnet
a sonnet consisting of an octave with the rhyme pattern abbaabba, followed by a sestet with the rhyme pattern: cdecde or cdcdcd
stanza
a fixed number of lines of verse forming a unit of a poem
stress
the relative prominence of a syllable or musical note (especially with regard to stress or pitch)
trochee
a metrical unit with stressed-stressed-unstressed syllables
volta
the turn in thought from question to answer, from instance to application, from problem to solution, that occurs towards the end of the sonnet
allusion
passing reference or indirect mention
apostrophe
address to an absent or imaginary person
euphemism
an inoffensive expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive
hyperbole
a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor
litotes
understatement for rhetorical effect (especially when expressing an affirmative by negating its contrary)
metaphor
a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity
onomatopoeia
using words that imitate the sound they denote
personification
the act of attributing human characteristics to abstract ideas etc.
simile
a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with 'like' or 'as')
symbol
something that stands for something else
synechdoche
Uses a part to explain a whole or a whole to explain a part. ex. Lend me an ear.
understatement
a statement that is restrained in ironic contrast to what might have been said