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concussion is a brain injury, caused by what?

sudden blow to the head

contusion is what?

a cerebral bruise, acceleration-deceleration injury

what are some cognitive problems that can occur because of a traumatic brain injury

memory retrieval
putting it all together

a localized collection of extracasated blood trapped in an organ, space, or tissue. resulting from a break in the wall of a blood vessel


how does a hematoma develop

first a vascular injury occurs that creates bleeding

what three places in the brain itself can bleeding from a hematoma occur

epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid

a bleed from a hematoma that occurs in the brain are called

intracerebral hematoma

what kind of hematoma develops in the area between the DURA and the ARACHNOID (subdural space) and usually is the result of a tear in the small bridging veins that connect veins on the surface of the cortex to dural sinuses?


what kind of hematoma develops between the inner table of the bones of the skull and the dura, usually a result in an artery


what artery is usually tworn in a patient who has a epidural hematoma

middle meningeal, usually because of a skull fracture

how are subdural hematomas classified? what is it based on?

acute, sub-acute and chronic, based on approximate time before the appearance of symptoms

an acute subdural is seen within how many hours? why are these so dangerous

24 hours
so dangerous because they progress rapidly and have a high mortality rate

why do acute subdural hematoma have a high mortality rate

secondary injuries related to edema and increased intracranial pressure

Sub acute subdural hematomas do not produce symptoms until how many days after

2-10 days

what can happen when a patient has a sub acute hematoma

symptoms can improve such as LOC and nurologic symptoms, but if the hematoma is not removed deterioration can happen

chronic subdural hematomas symptoms occur when?

several weeks after injury

what kind of patients usually have chronic subdural hematomas....why?

older patients
brain atrophy causes the brain to shrink away from the dura dn stretch fragile bridging veins, these veins rupture causing slow seepage of blood into the subdural space

epidural hematomas usually occurs in what kind of patients? why?

younger patients
dura is less firmly attached to the skull surface than in an older person

what complications can an epidural hematoma cause

the dura can be easily separated from the inner surface of the skull, allowing the hematoma to GROW

how can a nurse tell if a patient might of had an epidural hematoma

hx of head injury and a brief period of unconsciousness, followed by a lucid period in which consciousness is regained, followed by a rapid progression to unconsciousness

what can happen if a hamatoma is not removed

increased ICP--> tentotrail herniation--> DEATH

when is the prognosis the best for an epidural hematoma

if the hematoma is removed before loss of consciousness

what is the primary treatment for a hematoma

decrease intracranial pressure
return blood flow
remove hematoma

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