897 terms

Psych Final

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the science the studies behavior and mental processes.
a formulation of relationships underlying observed events.
pure research
research conducted without concern for immediate applications
applied research
research conducted in an effort to find solutions to particular problems.
critical thinking
an approach to thinking characterized by skepticism and thoughtful analysis of statements and arguments-for example, probing arguments' premises and the definitions of terms.
deliberate looking into one's own mind to examine one's own thoughts and feelings.
the school of psychology that argues hat the mind consists of three basic elements-sensations, feelings, and images-that combine to form experience.
the school of psychology that emphasizes the uses or functions of the mind rather than the elements of experience.
the school of psychology that defines psychology as the study of observable behavior and studies relationships between stimuli and responses.
a stimulus that follows a response and increases the frequency of the response.
gestalt psychology
the school of psychology that emphasizes the tendency to organize perceptions into wholes and to integrate separate stimuli into meaningful patterns.
in gestalt psychology, the sudden reorganization of perceptions, allowing the sudden solution of a problem
the school of psychology that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as determinants of human behavior.
referring to Freud's theory, which proposes that the motion of underlying forces of personality determines our thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
the basic building blocks of heredity.
having to do with mental processes such as sensations and perception, memory, intelligence, language, thought, and problem solving.
the philosophy and school of psychology that asserts that people are conscious, self-aware, and capable of free choice, self-fulfillment, and ethical behavior.
the view that people are free and responsible for their own behavior.
social-cognitive theory
a school of psychology in the behaviorist tradition that includes cognitive factors in the explanation and prediction of behavior.l formerly termed social-learning theory.
sociocultural perspective
the view that focuses on the roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in behavior and mental processes.
ethnic group
a group characterized by common features such as cultural heritage, history, rave, and language.
the state of being female or being male.
in psychology, a specific statement about behavior or mental processes that is tested through research.
selection factor
a source of bias that may occur in research findings when participants are allowed to choose for themselves a certain treatment in a scientific study.
repeat, reproduce, copy.
to extend from the particular to the general; to apply observations based on a sample to a population.
part of a population
a complete group of organisms or events
random sample
a sample drawn so that each member of a population has an equal chance of being selected to participate.
stratified sample
a sample drawn so that identified sub-groups in the population are represented proportionately in the sample.
volunteer bias
a source of bias or error in research reflecting e prospect that people who offer to participate in research studies differ systematically form people who do not.
case study
a carefully drawn biography that may be obtained trough interviews, questionnaires, and psychological tests.
a method of scientific investigation in which a large sample of people answer questions about their attitudes or behavior.
naturalistic observation
a scientific method in which organisms are observed in their natural environments.
correlation coefficient
a number between +1.00 to -1.00 that expresses the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables.
positive correlation
a relationship between variables in which one variable increases as the other also increases.
negative correlation
a relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other decreases.
a scientific method hat seeks to confirm cause-and-effect relationships by introducing independent variables and observing their effects on dependent variables.
in experiments, a condition received by participants so that its effects may be observed.
independent variable
a condition in a scientific study that is manipulated so that its effects may be observed.
dependent variable
a measure of an assumed effect of an independent variable
experimental groups
in experiments, groups whose members obtain the treatment.
control groups
in experiments, groups whose members do not obtain the treatment, while other conditions are held constant.
a bogus treatment that has the appearance of being genuine
in experimental terminology, unaware of whether or not one has received a treatment
double-blind study
a study in which neither the participants nor the observers know who has received the treatment.
moral referring to one's system of deriving standards for determining what is moral.
ethics review committee
a group found in an institutional setting that helps researchers consider the potential harm of their methods and reviews proposed studies according to ethical guidelines.
informed consent
the term used by psychologists to indicate that a person has agreed to participate in research after receiving information about the purposes of the study and the nature of the treatments.
an injury that results in impaired behavior or loss of a function.
5 goals of psychology
observe; describe ;explain ;predict ;control behavior AND mental process's
clinical psychologists
field of psychology that deals with people with psychological problems.
counseling psychologists
field of psychology that works with people who have adjustment problems.(NOT AS SERIOUS)
school psychologists
field of psychology that works with people who have problems that interfere with leaning. ADD ADHD
educational psychologists
field of psychology that deals with due coarse planning and institutional methods.
developmental psychologists
field of psychology that studies from conception till death and dying.
personality psychologists
field of psychology that studies things like human traits
social psychologists
field of psychology that studies the individual or group activities in social settings.
experimental psychologists
field of psychology that experiments to observe and analyze behavior.
industrial psychologists
field of psychology that studies people in the work place.
organizational psychologists
field of psychology that studies people in organizations, or just an organization.
consumer psychologists
field of psychology that is based on consumer actions.
health psychologists
field of psychology that mainly in 2011 deals with stress. say we need 8hrs work, 8 sleep, and 8 r&r
sports psychologists
field of psychology that works at the collegent level, and pro level
forensic psychologists
the field of psychology that deals with more crime, physical evidence, and psychological evidence.
human factor psychologists
the field of psychology that deals with why people are human friendly or not.
our objective sensation without opinion, bias, etc.
subjective sensation that includes mental process's that help us adapt to the environment. (usually to a new one)
the subjective sensation of behavior
B. F. Skinner
came up with the concept of reinforcement
concept of reinforcement
if you want behavior to happen again, reward it.
parts into wholes
freudian slip
saying the wrong word in place of another by accident
UNCONSCIOUS thoughts going through our head & internal conflicts
devil (pleasure principal)
internal conflicts
superego angel (moral principal)
biological perspective
modern day perspective that is the role of biology on human behavior from parents.
cognitive perspective
modern day perspective that includes the mental process's, thinking, thoughts, and the mind.
humanistic existential
modern day perspective that says we have free choice , we do what we do by choice.
psychodynamic perspective
modern day perspective that is freudian in nature; the focus is on the subconscious and the unconscious. THAT IS IT!!!
learning perspective
modern day perspective that believes that behavior is learned
socio-cultural perspective
modern day perspective ethnicity, gender, culture, socio-economics, all influence behavior. (personality)
to extend from particular to general
part of a population
a certain group of people
random sample
individuals selected by choice from a certain population.
stratified sample
pg. 23 sub-groups in the population are to be represented proportionally in the sample
volunteer bias
people who volunteer to participate in research studies often differ from people who do not.
selection factor
pg.21 don't let people select that they want. they may have a bias.
Case study
a method of observation that is an in depth investigation over a long period of time.
a method of observation that is a way to get info. from people based on questions and answers about behaviors and attitudes. ( bias, lies, bad questions)
naturalistic observation
modern day perspective that is observing people in there natural environment
modern day perspective how closely related two variables are.
correlation coefficient
pg. 25 a number between +1.00 and -1.00 that expresses strength and direction of relationships between two variables.
positive correlation
as one variable goes up, the other goes up. both increase together. not cause and effect
negative correlation
as one variable goes up, the other goes up. up and down not cause and effect
modern day perspective that has independent and dependent variables general to the experiment.
independent variable
something you control that changes another
dependent variable
the variable that depends on the independent variable
experimental group and control group
these make up the control experiment
fake thing prescribed to fix something
conduct an experiment that only the observer knows the group that gets the item
double blind
conduction of an experiment that a neutral third party is the only one that knows who gets the item.
good, no harm done.
can cause more harm than good
abbreviation for american psychological association.
everything must be confidential
informed consent
mostly for legal reasons, makes sure subject knows what is going to happen.
usually the person thinks they are part of a study for a reason, while they are actually doing something else.
get into trouble with APA unless you do this to tell people what is going on.
B.F. Skinner
one of the historical psychologists (theorist) came up with the concept of reinforcement.
his study was done at yale, did research to study peoples ability to retain information. guy who did so.
_______receive messages from a number of sources such as light, other ________ and pressure on the skin, and they pass these messages on.
chemical substances involved in the transmission of neural impulses from one neuron to another
glial cells
________ remove dead neurons and waste products from the nervous system, nourish, insulate, and direct their growth
root like structure, attached to the cell body of a neuron, that receive impulses from other neurons.
a long, thin part of a neuron that transmits impulses to other neurons from branching structures called terminals.
carry messages in one direction only: from the dentrite or cell body through the axon to the axon terminals. then messages are transmitted to the dentries or cell bodies of other neurons.
fatty substance that wraps around the axon of a neuron. They encase and insulate the axons from electrically charged atoms or ions
afferent neurons
neurons that transmit messages from the sensory receptors TO THE SPINAL CORD AND BRAIN. ALSO CALLED THE MOTOR NEURON.
efferent neurons
neural impulses
messages that travel within neurons between 2 and 225 miles an hour. It is the electro chemical discharge of a nerve cell, or neuron. Chemical changes take place within neurons that cause an electrical charge to be transmitted.
to ready a neuron for firing by creating a negative charge in relation to the body fluid outside the cell membrane.
resting potential
the electrical potential across the neural membrane when it is not responding to other neurons.
to reduce the resting potential of a cell membrane from about 70 millivolts toward zero.
action potential
the electrical impulse that provides the basis for the conduction of a neural impulse along an axon of a neuron.
all or none principle
the fact that a neuron fires an impulse of the same strength whenever its action potential is triggered.
refractory period
a phase following firing during which a neuron is less sensitive to messages from other neurons and will not fire.
a junction between the axon terminals of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another neuron
receptor period
a location on a dendrite of a receiving neuron tailored to receive a neurotransmitter
_________involved in physical processes such as muscle contraction and other processes sch as thoughts and emotions. Excesses or deficiencies of __________ have been linked to psychological disorders.
(aCh) a neurotransmitter that controls muscle contractions
a part of the limibic system of the brain that is involved in memory formation. when the amount of aCh available to the brain decreases, memory formation is impaired. (Alzheimer's disease)
it is involved in voluntary movements, learning, memory, and emotional arousal. It is a neurotransmitter that is involved in Parkinson's disease
a neurotransmitter that speeds up the heartbeat and other body processes and is involved in general arousal, learning and memory, and eating. Neurotransmitter actions are similar to that of the hormone adrenaline and that may play a role in depression.
a neurotransmitter, deficiencies of which have been linked to the disorders anxiety and insomnia. frequently produces hallucination in brain activity.
neurotransmitters that are composed of amino acids and that function similar to morphine.
a bundle of axons and dendrites from many neurons.
central nervous system
the brain, spinal cord, and the nerves linking them to the sensory organs, muscles, and glands.
peripheral nervous system
portion of the nervous system consisting of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. Made up of sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) neurons.
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that connects the central nervous system with sensory receptors, skeletal muscles, and the surface of the body. Transmit messages about sights, sounds, temperature. controls movements like lifting hand and winking.
autonomic nervous system
(ANS)the division of the peripheral nervous system that regulates glands and activities such as heartbeat, respiration, digestion, and dilation of the pupils
__________branch of ANS that is most active during emotional responses such as fear and anxiety that spend the bodies reserved energy. when your scared _________- accelerate heart rate
____________the branch of the ANS that is most active during processes such as digestion that restore the bodies reserves of energy. WHEN you're relaxed, ___________ decelerate heart rate.
bundles of axons each coated with a sheath of myelin (fat)
spinal cord
a complex cable of nerves that connects the brain to most of the rest of the body
masses of the cell bodies and dendrites, each covered with synapses
spinal reflex
an UNLEARNED RESPONSE automatic, rapid response to a stimulus; no thought; involuntary
a neuron that transmits a neural impulse from a sensory neuron (afferent) to a motor neuron(efferent)
transmits traits that have evolved from generation to generation. define on's nature based on on's biological structures and processes.
structures consisting of genes that are found in the nuclei of the body 46 into 23 pairs more that 1,000 genes
the sub-field of biology that specifically studies heredity.
behavioral genetics
study of the genetic transmission of structure and traits that give rise to behavior.
kinship studies
study on the presence of traits and behavior patterns in people who are biologically related or unrelated. (closer in relation=more likely to share similar traits. parents/siblings/children 50 % Aunts/uncles/nieces/nephews 25% first cousins 12.5%
sex chromosomes
the 23 pair of chromosomes which determine the gender (responsibility of father)
adoptee studies
compare children who have been separated at birth/early age and live in different environments check for similarities.
Nature vs. Nurture
the study of genetics vs. environmental influences.
people who believe a person's traits come more from the natural parents and not environment.
people who believe that a persons traits come more from te environment and not natural parents.
MZ twins
onoyogotic identcal twins
DZ twins
iygotic fraternal twins
large mass of the fore brain consists of 2 hemispheres.
cerebral cortex
outer surface of the cerebrum
oblong area of the hind brain involved in regulation of heart beat respiration.
structure of the hind brain involving: respiration attention sleep and dreaming relaying station for sensory information and movement sleeping
reticular activating system
(RAS) the part of the brain involved in attention sleep arousal
chemical messengers created by the body that are released by an endocrine gland. regulate the bodies growth, metabolism, and sexual development and function.
pituitary gland
"MASTER GLAND" pea sized gland that is central to the bodies functioning. produces hormones that control many functions of other endocrine glands.
growth hormone
a hormone secreted form the pituitary gland that regulates growth.
hormone that stimulates milk production in females
antidiuretic hormone
inhibits the production of urine when fluid levels in the body are low.
a hormone released by the pituitary gland that stimulates labor and lactation (milk production)
a hormone that regulates the sleep-wake cycle of the body
a hormone that increases metabolic rate
penial gland
sleep wake cycle in males
thyroid gland
responsible for weight
hormones that increase resistance to stress; promote muscle development; and cause the liver to release stored sugar so more energy is available in emergencies
a hormone produced in the adrenal glands that helps the body cope with stresses and other threats.
a male sex hormone produced by the testes that promotes growth of male genital organs and sperm.l
a female sex hormone that promotes growth o female sex characteristics and regulate the menstrual cycle
a female sex hormone that promotes growth of the sex organs and helps maintain pregnancy
testes and ovaries
sex organs
PET scan
sectional view of the body.
powerful magnetic field to view the body
part of the hindbrain second largest part of the brain "little brain" controls balance coordinates muscle movement receives information from spinal cord
area near the center of the brain involved in the relay of sensory information to the cortex and in the functions of sleep and attention receives information from the body
bundle of nuclei below the thalamus involved in body temperature, motivation, and emotion.
the ancient Chinese practice of piercing parts of the body with needles to deaden pain and treat illness.
a part of the limbic system a group of structures involved in memory motivation and emotion
a disruption in the ability to understand or produce language.
frontal lobe
the lobe of the cerebral cortex that lies to the front of the central fissure. speech personality
temporal lobe
the lobe that lies below the lateral fissure, near the temples of the head. hearing and memory
corpus callosum
a thick fiber bundle that connects the hemispheres of the cortex
occipital lobe
the lobe that lies behind and below the parietal lobe and behind the temporal lobe. vision
parietal lobe
the lobe that lies just behind the central fissure senses
wernicke's aphasia
a language disorder characterized by difficulty comprehending the meaning of spoken language
temporary disturbances of brain functions that involve sudden neural changes
the section of cortex in which sensory stimulation is projected. it lies just behind the central fissure, in the parietal lobe.
motor cortex
the section of cortex that lies in the frontal lobe, just across the central fissure from the sensory cortex. neural impulses in the motor cortex are linked to muscular responses throughout the body.
Broca's aphasia
a language disorder characterized by slow laborious speech.
the stimulation of sensory receptors and the transmission of sensory information to the central nervous system.
the process by which sensations are organized into an inner representation of the of the world.
absolute threshold
the minimal amount of energy that can produce a sensation.
a person who studies the relationships between physical stimuli (such as light or sound) and their perception.
method of constant stimuli
a psychophysical method for determining thresholds in which the researcher presents stimuli of various magnitudes and asks the person to report detection.
bridging the gap between the physical and psychological worlds.
the highness or lowness of a sound, as determined by the frequency of the sound waves.
difference threshold
the minimal difference in intensity required between two sources of energy so that they will be perceived as being different
Weber's constant
the fraction of the intensity by which a source of physical energy must be increased or decreased so that a difference in intensity will be perceived.
just noticeable difference
the minimal amount by which a source of energy must be increased or decreased so that a difference in intensity will be perceived.
signal-detection theory
the view that the perception of sensory stimuli involves the interaction of physical, biological, and psychological factors.
feature detectors
neurons in the sensory cortex that fire in response to specific features of sensory information such as lines or edges of objects
sensory adaptation
the processes by which organisms become more sensitive to stimuli that are low in magnitude and less sensitive to stimuli that are constant or ongoing in magnitude
the type of sensory adaptation in which we become more sensitive to stimuli that are low in magnitude. also called positive adaption.
the type of sensory adaptation in which we become less sensitive to constant stimuli. also called negative adaptation
visible light
the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that stimulates the eye and produces visual sensations.
the color of light, as determined by its wavelength
transparent tissue forming the outer surface of the eyeball
a muscular membrane whose dilation regulates the amount of light that enters the eye.
the apparently black opening in the center of the iris, through which light enter the eye.
a transparent body behind the iris that focuses and image on the retina
the area of the inner surgace of the eye that containrs rods and cones
cells that respond to light.
bipolar cells
neurons that conduct neural impulses from rods and cones to ganglion cells
ganglion cells
neurons whose axons form the optic nerve
optic nerve
the nerve that transmits sensory information for the eye to the brain.
an area near the center of the retina that is dense with cones and where vision is most acute.
blind spot
the area of the retina where axons from ganglion cells meet to form the optic nerve
visual acuity
sharpness of vision
capable of seeing nearby objects with greater acuity that distant objects
capable of seeing distant objects with greater acuity that nearby objects.
a condition characterized by brittleness of the lens
Rod-shaped photoreceptors that are sensitive only to the intensity of light
cone-shaped photoreceptors that transmit sensations of color
dark adaptation
the process of adjusting to conditions of lower lighting by increasing the sensitivity of rods and cones
descriptive of colors of the spectrum that when combined produce white or nearly white
the lingering visual impression made by a stimulus that has been removed.
trichromatic theory
the theory that color vision is made possible by three types of cones, some of which respond to red light, some to green , and some to blue.
opponent-process theory
the theory that color vision is made possible by three types of cones, some of which respond to red or green light, some to blue or yellow, and some only to the intensity of light.
a person with normal color vision
a person who is only sensitive to black and white hence color blind
a person who is sensitive to black-white and either red-green or blue-yellow and hence partially color blind
the tendency to perceive a broken figure as being complete or whole.
perceptual organization
the tendency to integrate perceptual elements into meaningful patterns
having two or more possible meanings
nearness. the perceptual tendency to group together objects that are near one another.
the perceptual tendency to group together objects that are similar in appearance
the tendency to perceive a series of points or lines as having unity
common fate
the tendency to perceive elements that move together as belonging together
top-down processing
the use of contextual information or knowledge of a pattern in order to organize parts of the pattern.
bottom-up processing
the organization of the parts of a pattern to recognize, or form an image of, the pattern they compose.
sensations that give rise to misperceptions
autokinetic effect
the tendency to perceive a stationary point of light in a dark room as moving.
istroboscopic motion
a visual illusion in which the perception of motion is generated by a series of stationary images that are presented in rapid succession.
Phi phenomenon
the perception of movement as a result of sequential presentation of visual stimuli.
monocular cues
stimuli suggestive of depth that can be perceived with only one eye
a monocular cue for depth based on the convergence of parallel lines as they recede into the distance
a monocular cue for depth based on the fact that a nearby object obscures a more distant object behind it
a monocular cue for depth based on the fact that opaque objects block light and produce shadows.
texture gradient
a monocular cue for depth based on the perception that closer objects appear to have more detailed surfaces
motion parallax
a monocular cue for depth based on the perception that nearby objects appear to move more rapidly in relation to our own motion
binocular cues
stimuli suggestive of depth that involve simultaneous perception by both eyes
retinal disparity
a binocular cue for depth based on the difference in the image cast by an object on the retinas of the eyes as the object moves closer or farther away.
a binocular cue for depth based on the inward movement of the eyes as they attempt to focus on a n object that is drawing nearer
size constancy
the tendency to perceive an object as being the same size even as the size of its retinal image changes according to the object's distance
color constancy
the tendency to perceive an object as being the same color even though lighting conditions change its appearance
brightness constancy
the tendency to perceive an object as being just as bright even though lighting conditions change its intensity
shape constancy
the tendency perceive an object as being the same shape although the retinal image varies in shape as it rotates
having to do with hearing
a unit expressing the frequency of sound waves. 1 Hz equals one cycle per second
a unit expressing the loudness of a sound. dB
a thin membrane that vibrates in response to sound waves, transmitting the waves to the middle and inner ears.
the inner ear; the bony tube that contains the basilar membrane and the organ of corti
basilar membrane
a membrane that lies coiled within the cohlea
organ of corti
the receptor for hearing that lies on the basilar membrane in the colchea
auditory nerve
the axon bundle that transmits neural impulses from the organ of corti to the brain
place theory
the theory that the pitch of a sound is determined buy the section of the basilar membrane that vibrates in response to the sound.
frequency theory
the theory that the pitch of a sound is reflected in the frequency of the neural impulses that are generated in response to the sound
conductive deafness
the forms of deafness in which there is loss of conduction of sound through the middle ear
sensorineural deafness
the forms of deafness that result from damage to hair cells or the auditory nerve
having to do with the sense of smell
olfactory nerve
the nerve that transmits information concerning odors from olfactory receptors to the brain
taste cells
receptor cells that are sensitive to taste
taste buds
the sensory organs for taste. they contain taste cells and are located on the tongue
two-point threshold
the least distance by which two rods touching the skin must be separated before the person will report that there are two rods, not one, on 50% of occasions
giving rise to a sate of not feeling pain though fully conscious
the sense that informs us about the positions and motion of parts of our bodies
vestibular sense
the sense of equilibrium that informs us about our bodies positions relative to gravity
semicircular canals
structures of the inner ear that monitor body movement and position
as a noun, a concept or a theory that is devised in order to help make sense of, or integrate, our observations of a phenomenon. Consciousness, anxiety, and achievement motivation are examples of constructs of interest to psychologists.
selective attention
the focus of one's consciousness on a particular stimulus.
direct inner awareness
knowledge of one;s own thoughts, feelings, and memories without use of sensory organs.
in psychodynamic theory, descriptive of material that is not in awareness but can be brought into awareness by focusing one/s attention.
in psychodynamic theory, descriptive of ideas and feelings that are not available to awareness.
in psychodynamic theory, the automatic ejection of anxiety-evoking ideas, impulses, or images from awareness.
the deliberate, or conscious, placing of certain ideas, impulses, or images out of awareness.
descriptive of bodily processes such as the growing of hair, of which we cannot become conscious. We may "recognize" that our hair is growing but cannot directly experience the biological process.
circadian rhythm
referring to cycles that are connected with the 24-hour period of the earth's rotation.
non-rapid-eye-movement sleep
stages of sleep 1 through 4. Abbreviated NREM sleep.
rapid-eye-movement sleep
a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, which have been linked to dreaming. abbreviated REM sleep
alpha waves
rapid low-amplitude brain waves that have been linked to feelings of relaxation.
theta waves
slow brain waves produced during the hypnagogic state.
hypnagogic state
the drowsy interval between waking and sleeping, characterized by brief, hallucinatory, dreamlike experiences.
activation-synthesis model
the view that dreams reflect activation of cognitive activity by the reticular activating system and synthesis of this activity into a pattern by the cerebral cortex.
a "sleep attack" in which a person falls asleep suddenly and irresistibly.
temporary absence or cessation of breathing.
sleep terrors
frightening dreamlike experiences that occur during the deepest stage of NREM sleep. Nightmares, in contrast, occur during REM sleep.
a condition in which people appear to be highly suggestible and behave as thought they are in a trance.
greatly enhanced or heightened memory
age regression
in hypnosis, taking on the role of childhood, commonly accompanied by vivid recollections of one's past.
perceptions in the absence of sensation
role theory
a theory that explains hypnotic events in terms of the person's ability to act as though he or she were hypnotized. role theory differs from faking in that participants cooperate and focus on hypnotic suggestions instead of pretending to be hypnotized.
response set theory
the view that response experiences play a key roe in the production of the experiences suggested by the hypnotist.
neodissociation theory
a theory of hypnotic events as the splitting of consciousness.
transcendental meditation (TM)
the simplified form of meditation brought to the united states by the maharishi Mahesh yogi and used as a method for coping with stress.
Biofeedback training (BFT)
the systematic feeding back to an organism information about a bodily function so that the organism can gain control of that function
elctromyograph (EMG)
an instrument that measures muscle tension.
psychoactive substances
drugs that have psychological effects such as stimulation or distortion of perceptions.
a drug that lowers the rate of activity of the nervous system.
a drug that increases activity of the nervous system
substance abuse
persistent use of a substance even though it is causing or compounding problems in meeting the demands of life.
habituation to a drug, with the result that increasingly higher doses of the drug are needed to achieve similar effects.
abstinence syndrome
a characteristic cluster of symptoms that results from sudden decrease in an addictive drug's level of usage.
delirium tremens
a condition characterized by sweating, restlessness, disorientation, and hallucinations. the DTs occurs in some chronic alcohol users when there is a sudden decrease in usage.
cirrhosis of the liver
a disease cause by protein deficiency in which connective fibers replace active liver cells, impeding circulation of the blood. Alcohol does not contain protein; therefore, persons who drink excessively may be prone to this disease.
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
a cluster of symptoms associated with chronic alcohol abuse and characterized by confusion, memory impairment, and filling in gaps in memory with false information. (confabulation)
a group of narcotics derived from the opium poppy that provide a euphoric rush and dress the nervous system
drugs used to relieve pain and induce sleep. the term is usually reserved for opiates.
chemicals that act on opiate receptors but are not derived from the opium poppy.
an addictive depressant used to relieve anxiety or induce sleep.
an addictive depressant. often called "ludes"
stimulants derived from alpha-methyl-beta-phenyl-ethyl-amine, colorless liquid consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
a disorder that begins in child hood and is characterized by a persistent pattern of lack of attention, with or without hyperactivity and impulsive behavior.
chemical compounds consisting of hydrogen and carbon
passive smoking
inhaling of smoke from the tobacco products and exhalations of other people; also called second-hand smoking
giving rise to hallucinations
the dried vegetable matter of the cannabis sativa plant
causing hallucinations, delusions, or heightened perceptions.
a drug derived from the resin of cannabis sativa. often called "Hash"
lysergic acid diethylamide. hallucinogenic drug
distorted perceptions or hallucinations that occur days or weeks after LSD usage but mimic the LSD experience
a hallucinogenic drug derived from the mescal (peyote) cactus.
another hallucinogenic drug whose name is an acronym for its chemical structure. abbreviated PCP
sleep disorders
ex. 1) insomnia-cannot sleep 2)narcolespy- fall asleep at random 3)apnea-stop breathing when sleeping
deep sleep disorders
1) night terrors 2)bed wetting 3)sleep walking caused by an immature nervous system
unconcious psychodynamic
offered the role theory for hypnosis
helped with response theory
delt with perceptual ditortions ex. loud noises smells odors, or feeling pain
according to behaviorists, a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience.
according to cognitive theorists, the process y which organisms make relatively permanent changes in the way they represent the environment because of experience. These changes influence the organism's behavior but do not fully determine it
classical conditioning
a simple form of learning in which an organism comes to associate or anticipate events. a neutral stimulus comes to evoke the response usually evoked by another stimulus by being paired repeatedly with the other stimulus. (cognitive theorists view classical conditioning as the learning of relationships among events so as to allow an organism to represent its environment.) also referred to as respondent conditioning or pavlovian conditioning
a simple unlearned response to a stimulus
an environmental condition that elicits a response
conditioned response (CR)
in classical conditioning, a learned response to a conditioned stimulus
unconditioned stimulus (US)
a stimulus that elicits a response from an organism prior to conditioning.
unconditioned response (UR)
an unlearned response to an unconditioned stimulus
conditioned stimulus (CS)
a previously neutral stimulus that elicits a conditioned response because it has been paired repeatedly with a stimulus that already elicited that response
delayed conditioning
a classical conditioning procedure in which the CS is presented before the US and remains in place until the response occurs.
simultaneous conditioning
a classical conditioning procedure in which the CS and US are presented at the same time
trace conditioning
a classical conditioning procedure in which the CS is presented and then removed before the US is present
backward conditioning
a classical conditioning procedure in which the unconditioned stimulus is presented prior to the conditioned stimulus
an experimental procedure in which stimuli lose their ability to evoke learned responses because the events that had followed the stimuli no longer occur. (The learned responses are said to be extinguished.
spontaneous recovery
the recurrence of an extinguished response as a function of the passage of time
in conditioning, the tendency for a conditioned response to b evoked by stimuli that are similar to the stimulus to which the response was conditioned
discrimination training
teaching an organism to show a learned response in the presence of only one of a series of similar stimuli, accomplished by alternating the stimuli but following only the one stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus.
in conditioning, the tendency for an organism to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not forecast an unconditioned stimulus.
higher-order conditioning
according to behaviorists, a classical conditioning procedure in which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit the response brought forth by a conditioned stimulus b being paired repeatedly with that conditioned stimulus.
higher-order conditioning
according to cognitive psychologists, the learning of relationships among events, none of which evokes an unlearned response.
a behavioral fear-reduction technique ased on principles of classical conditioning. Fear evoking stimuli (CSs) are presented continuously in the absence of actual harm so that fear responses (CRs) are extinguished.
systematic desensitization
a behavioral fear-reduction technique in which a hierarchy of fear-evoking stimuli is presented while the person remains relaxed.
a fear-reduction technique in which pleasant stimuli are associated with fear-evoking stimuli so that the fear evoking stimuli lose their aversive qualities
law of effect
thorndike's principle that responses are "Stamped In" by rewards and "Stamped out" by punishments
to follow a response with a stimulus that increases the frequency of the response
operant behavior
voluntary responses that are reinforced
operant conditioning
a simple form of learning in which an organism learns to engage in behavior because it is reinforced
the same as an operant behavior
positive reinforcer
a reinforcer that when presented increases the frequency of an operant
negative reinforcer
a reinforcer that when removed increases the frequency of an operant
primary reinforcer
an unlearned reinforcer
secondary reinforcer
a stimulus that gains reinforcement values through association with established reinforcers
conditioned reinforcer
another term for a secondary reinforcer
an unpleasant stimulus that suppresses the behavior it follows
time out
removal of an organism from a situation in which reinforcement is available when unwanted behavior is shown
discriminative stimulus
in operant conditioning, a stimulus that indicates that reinforcement is available
continuous enforcement
a schedule of reinforcement in which every correct response is reinforced
partial reinforcement
one of several reinforcement schedules in which not every correct response is reinforced.
fixed-interval schedule
a schedule in which a fixed amount of time must elapse between the previous and subsequent times that reinforcement is available
variable-interval schedule
a schedule in which a variable amount of tie must elapse between the previous and subsequent times that reinforcement is available
fixed-ratio schedule
a schedule in which reinforcement is provided after a fixed number of correct responses
variable-ratio schedule
a schedule in which reinforcement is provided after a variable number of correct responses
a procedure for teaching complex behaviors that at first reinforce approximations of the target behavior
successive approximations
behaviors that are progressively closer o a target behavior
guidance of people into socially desirable behavior y means of verbal messages, the systematic use of rewards and punishments, and other methods of teaching
token economy
an environmental setting that fosters desired behavior by reinforcing it with tokens (secondary reinforcers) that ca be exchanged for other reinforcers
programmed learning
a method of learning in which complex tasks are broken down into simple steps, each of which is reinforced. errors are not reinforced
contingency theory
the view that learning occurs when stimuli provide information about the likelihood of the occurrence of other stimuli
hidden or concealed
observational learning
the acquisition of knowledge and skills through the observation of others (who are called models) rather that by means of direct experience
an organism that engages in a response that is the imitated by another organism
Ivan Pavlov
came up with the concept of classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov
guy that came up with this (US)-Food (un-learned) (UR)-salivation (un-learned response) (CS)-bell (conditioned stimulus) (CR)-salivation (conditioned response)
delayed conditioning
order in class. mixed up
backward conditioning
convincing// predictions
taste aversion
type of classical conditioning dealing with taste
used for people that have severe fears (ABNORMAL)
application that is an over-flow with fear
systematic desensitization
application that slowly desensitizes people of their fears
counter conditioning
applications that must be a good enough way to over come something +=-
operant conditioning
behavior because it is reinforced
operant behavior
responses that are reinforced
edward thorndike
came up with the law of effect (responses are "stamped in" by rewards & "Stamped out" by punishments
B.F. Skinner
reinforcement-if you follow a response with a stimulus that increases the frequency of the response, the response will continue
four types of reinforcers
positive, negative, primary, secondary(conditioned)
positive reinforcer
reinforcer that when presented it increases the frequency of the operant/ behavior :)
negative reinforcer
reinforcer that when removed increases the frequnce of the operant/behavior/ :(
primary reinforcer
reinforcer that are un-learned-> needs
secondary/conditioned reinforcer
reinforcer that is learned -> wants
spontaneous recovery
behavior will come back
behavior goes away
discriminative stimuli
a stimulus that indicates reinforcement is available (not consistent reinforcement)
successive approximations
hot/cold activity
primary tokens
secondary tokens
programmed learning
very similar to difference; do not focus on errors , focus only on the positive
E.C. Tolman
did the experiment with the rats that showed that a rat that had no reason to learn their maze could, and later find food on the other side just as fast as the rats that had been trained (FORMING COGNITIVE MAPS OF THE ENVIRONMENT)
Law of effect
explicit memory
memory that clearly and distinctly expresses (explicates) specific information.
implicit memory
memory that is suggested (implied) but not plainly expressed, as illustrated in the things that people do but do not state clearly.
episodic memory
memories of events experienced by a person or that take place in the person's presence.
semantic memory
general knowledge as opposed to episodic memory.
retrospective memory
memory for past events, activities, and learning experiences, as shown by explicit (episodic and semantic) and implicit memories.
prospective memory
memory to perform an act in the future, as at a certain time or when a certain event occurs
modifying information so that it can be placed in memory. the first stag of information processing.
visual code
mental representation of information as picture
acoustic code
mental representation of information as a sequence of sounds.
semantic code
mental representation of information according to its meaning
the maintenance of information over time. the second stage of information processing.
maintenance rehearsal
mental repetition of information in order to keep it in memory
self-awareness of the ways in which memory functions, allowing the person to encode, store, and retrieve information effectively
elaborative rehearsal
the kind of coding in which new information is related to information that is already known.
the location of stored information and its return to consciousness. the third stage of formation processing.
the processes by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved
saccadic eye movement
the rapid jumps made by a person's eyes as they fixate on different points.
sensory memory
the type or stage of memory first encountered by a stimulus. ________ __________ holds impressions briefly, but long enough so that series of perceptions are psychologically continuous.
memory trace
an assumed change in the nervous system that reflects the impression made by a stimulus. _______ ________ are sad to be "held" in sensory registers.
sensory register
a system of memory that holds information briefly, but long enough so that it can be processed further. there may be a ______ ______ for every sense.
a mental representation of a visual stimulus that is held briefly in sensory memory
iconic memory
the sensory register that briefly holds mental representations of visual stimuli
eidetic imagery
the maintenance of detailed visual memories over several minutes
a mental representation of an auditory stimulus (sound) that is held briefly in sensory memory.
echoic memory
the sensory register that briefly holds mental representations of auditory stimuli
short-term memory
the type or stage of memory that can hold information for up to a minute or so after the trace of the stimulus decays. also called working memory.
working memory
other name for short-term memory
serial-position effect
the tendency to recall more accurately the first and last items in a series.
primacy effect
the tendency to recall the initial items in a series of items
recency effect
the tendency to recall the last items in a series of items
a stimulus or group of stimuli that are perceived as a discrete piece of information
mechanical associative learning that is based on repetition
in memory theory, to cause information to be lost from short-term memory by adding new information
long-term memory
the type or stage memory capable of relatively permanent storage
in Freud's psychodynamic theory, the ejection of anxiety-evoking ideas from conscious awareness
a way of mentally representing the world, such as a belief or an expectation, that can influence perception of persons, objects, and situations
elaborative rehearsal
a method for increasing retention of new information by relating it to information that is well known.
tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon
the feeling that information is stored in memory although it cannot be readily retrieved. also called the feeling-of-knowing experience
feeling-of-knowing experience
other name for tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon
context-dependent memory
information that is better retrieved in the context in which was encoded and stored, or learned
state-dependent memory
information that is better retrieved in the physiological or emotional state in which it was encoded and stored, or learned
nonsense syllables
meaningless sets of two consonants, with a vowel sandwiched in between, that are used to study memory
in information processing, the easiest memory task, involving identification of objects or events encountered before.
retrieval or reconstruction of learned material
paired associates
nonsense syllables presented in pairs in experiments that measure recall.
a measure of retention. material is usually relearned more quickly that it is learned initially.
method of savings
a measure of retention in which the difference between the number of repetitions originally required to learn a list and the number of repetitions required to relearn the list after a certain amount of time has elapsed is calculated
the difference between the number of repetitions originally required to learn a list and the number of repetitions required to relearn the list after a certain amount of time has elapsed.
interference theory
the view that we may forget stored material because other learning interferes with it.
retroactive interference
the interference of new learning with the ability to retrieve material learned previously
proactive interference
the interference by old learning with the ability to retrieve material learned recently.
dissociative amnesia
amnesia thought to stem from psychological conflict or trauma
infantile amnesia
inability to recall events that occur prior to the age of 2 or 3. also termed childhood amnesia
a structure in the limbic system that plays an important role in the formation of new memories
anterograde amnesia
failure to remember events that occur after physical trauma because of the effects of the trauma
retrograde amnesia
failure to remember events that occur prior to physical trauma because of the effects of the trauma
mnemonic devices
systems for remembering in which items are related to easily recalled sets of symbols such as acronyms, phrases, or jingles
1) an assumed electrical circuit in the brain that corresponds to a memory trace
2) an assumed chemical change in the brain that accompanies learning
long-term potentiation
enhanced efficiency in synaptic transmission that follows brief, rapid stimulation
prefrontal cortex
part of the brain aware of past and present
frontal lobe
part of the brain aware of where and when
part of the brain involved with verbal memories
Elizabeth Loftus
took a random sample on : a black man holding a pen and a white man holding a weapon. [people switched the weapon and pen; even a.a.]
Atkinson and Shiffrin
people who organized the three stages of memory chart
mental activity that is involved in understanding, manipulating, and communicating about information. _______ entails paying attention to information, mentally representing it, reasoning about it, and making decisions about it.
a mental category that is used to class together objects, relations, events, abstractions, or qualities that have common properties
a concept of a category of objects or events that serves as a good example of the category.
a specific example
a systematic procedure for solving a problem that works invariably when it is correctly applied
systematic random search
an algorithm for solving problems in which each possible solution is tested according to a particular set of rules
rules of thumb that help us simplify and solve problems
means-end analysis
a heuristic device in which we try to solve a problem by evaluating the difference between the current situation and the goal.
mental set
the tendency to respond to a new problem with an approach that was successfully used with similar problems
in gestalt psychology, a sudden perception of relationships among elements of the "perceptual field," permitting the solution of a problem.
in problem solving, a hypothetical process that sometimes occurs when we stand back from a frustrating problem for a while and the solution "suddenly" appears.
the ability to generate novel and useful solutions to problems
convergent thinking
a thought process that attempts to narrow in on the single best solution to a problem.
divergent thinking
a thought process that attempts to generate multiple solutions to problems
a group process that encourages creativity by stimulating a large number of ideas and suspending judgment until the process is completed.
the transforming of information to reach conclusions
deductive reasoning
a from of reasoning about arguments in which conclusions are deduced from premises. the conclusions are true if the premises are true
inductive reasoning
a form of reasoning in which we reason from individual cases or particular facts to a general conclusion.
representativeness heuristic
a decision-making heuristic in which people make judgements about samples according to the populations they appear to represent
availability heuristic
a decision-making heuristic in which our estimates of frequency or probability of events are based on how easy it is to find examples.
anchoring and adjustment heuristic
a decision-making heuristic in which a presumption or first estimate serves as a cognitive anchor. as we receive additional information, we make adjustments, but tend to remain in the proximity of the anchor.
framing effect
the influence of working, or the context in which information is presented, on decision making.
the communication of information by means of symbols arranged according to rules of grammar.
meaning. the quality of language in which words are used as symbols for objects, events, or ideas.
infinite creativity
the capacity to combine words into original sentences
the quality of language that permits one to communicate information about objects and events in another time and place.
the study of the basic sounds in a language
a basic sound in a language
the smallest unit of meaning in a language
grammatical markers that change the forms of words to indicate grammatical relationships such as number and tense.
the study of the meanings of a language--the relationships between language and objects and events.
linguistic-relativity hypothesis
the view that language structures the way in which we view the world
mental processes thoughts and thinking
ex. putting pictures with concepts.
common example of a bigger object
specific example of a bigger group
follow steps, solve problem
rule of thumb no steps gut feelings
end analysis
factors affecting problem solving
expertise mental sets insight incubation functional fixedness
convergent thinking
1 solution
divergent thinking
multiple solutions
transforming information to such conclusions _______data thought yields conclusions
inductive reasoning
conclusions from premises if premises are true, the reasoning is true
deductive reasoning
reasons for general facts to equal a general conclusion
conformation bias
something you look at positive and negative
confirmed bias
gut feelings
representativeness heuristics
judgements about samples according to the population they appear to represent
availability heuristics
estimate of frequency or probability of events that are based on how easy it is to find examples
records ethics values
framing effect
influence of recording the extent of which information is presented on decision making not what you say, how you say it.
verbal communication younger people don't do is much
the quality of language that permits are to communicate information about objects and events in another time and palce
linguistic relativity hypothesis
language influences the world our world
changes time and/or place
a complex and controversial concept. according to David Wechsler (1975), the capacity...to understand the world {and} resourcefulness to cope with its challenges.
Spearman's symbol for general intelligence, which he believed underlay more specific abilities.
Spearman's symbol for specific factors, or s factors, which he believed accounted for individual abilities.
factor analysis
a statistical technique that allows researchers to determine the relationships among large numbers of items such as test items.
primary mental abilities
according to Thurstone, the basic abilities that make up intelligence
mental age
the accumulated months of credit that a person earns on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Abbreviated MA.
intelligence quotient
1) originally, a ratio obtained by dividing a child's score (or mental age) on an intelligence test by chronological age.
intelligence quotient
2) generally, a score on an intelligence test.
the degree to which the variations in a trait from one person to another can be attributed to, or explained by, genetic factors.
stereotype vulnerability
the tendency to focus on a conventional, negative belief about one's group, such that the individual risks behaving in a way that confirms that belief.
more broad thought of understanding the world and coping with it's challenges.
understanding/manipulation of information
factor theories of intelligence: 1) general factors(broad reasoning) 2) specific factors(some people are more superior in some areas) 3) factor analysis(technique used by researchers to determine which items on tests seem to measure the same thing.) critics - _______ was oversimplified. Man with this is answer.
primary mental abilities ( the basic abilities that make up intelligence) critics- _______ was more overlapping. person with information is the answer
Gardner (Howard)
theory of multiple intelligence's (8) critics- if someone has no musical ability, are they considered unintelligent
1)analytical 2) creative 3) practical man who came up with this is answer
emotional intelligence
1) self aware 2) mood management 3) self-motivation 4) impulse control 5) people skills
analytical intelligence
learner/thinking $$$$$$$$ sternberg
creative intelligence
new situation// best used sternberg
practical intelligence
common sense sternberg
terman studies
tracked progress of 1500 students with IQ of 135+. as adults, the group was extremely successful.
mental age/chronological age * 100
group testing
ex. of this is school testing
130+ IQ
gifted IQ level
70- IQ
mental IQ level
wechsler scale
test used to measure and determine IQ
stuff that one gets from it's parents 88%
home/parenting, school system, environment-(nature) what is the percent
stereotype vulnerability
ex. of this is when somebody uses a stereotype as an example.
cognitive-dissonance theory
the view that we are motivated to make our cognitions or beliefs consistent
a hypothetical state within an organism that propels the organism toward a goal.
a state of deprivation
a condition of arousal in an organism that is associated with a need
physiological drives
unlearned drives with a biological basis, such as hunger, thirst, and avoidance of pain.
an object, person, or situation perceived as being capable of satisfying a need.
an inherited disposition to activate specific behavior patterns that are designed to reach certain goals.
chemical secretions detected by other members of the same species that stimulate stereotypical behaviors.
drive-reduction theory
the view that organisms learn to engage in behaviors that have the effect of reducing drives.
primary drives
unlearned, or physiological, drives
acquired drives
drives acquired through experience, or learned
the tendency of the body to maintain a steady state.
according to Maslow and other humanistic psychologists, self-initiated striving to become what one is capable of being. the motive for reaching on's full potential, for expressing one;s unique capabilities.
the state of being satisfied; fullness.
ventromedial nucleus
a central area on the underside of the hypothalamus that appears to function as a stop-eating center.
characterized by excessive eating.
lateral hypothalamus
an area at the side of the hypothalamus that appears to function as a start-eating center.
characterized by under-eating
stimulus motives
motives to increase the stimulation impinging upon an organism.
Attitude-discrepant behavior
Behavior inconsistent with an attitude that may have the effect of modifying an attitude
Effort justification
In cognitive-dissonance theory, the tendency to seek justification for strenuous efforts
Man who created the thematic apperception test
Association or connection with a group
Theory of social comparison
The view that people look to others for cues about how to behave when they are in confusing or unfamiliar situations
In psychodynamic theory, the purging of strong emotions or the relieving of tensions
a state of feeling that has cognitive, physiological, and behavioral components
sympathetic nervous system
the branch of the autonomic nervous system that is most active during processes that spend body energy from stored reserves, such as in a fight-or-flight reaction to a predator or when you are anxious about a big test. When people experience fear, the ________ __________ _________ accelerates the heart rate, raises the blood pressure, tenses muscles, and so on.
parasympathetic nervous system
the branch of the autonomic nervous system that is most active during processes that restore reserves of energy to the body, such as relaxing and eating. when people relax, the __________ ___________ _______ decelerates the heart rate, normalizes the blood pressure, relaxes muscles, and so on. the parasympathetic division also stimulates digestion.
facial-feedback hypothesis
the views that stereotypical facial expressions can contribute to stereotypical emotions
cognitive-dissonance theory
the view that we are motivated to make our cognitions (thoughts) or beliefs consistent.
hypothetical state with an organism that propels the organism towards a goal
a state of deprivation
psychological needs
type of needs: not based on states of deprivation...may be acquired or learned through experience
physical needs
type of needs: without these we would die
physiological drives
unlearned drives wit a biological bases, such as hunger, thirst, and avoidance of pain
_______arouse to action
object, person, or situation perceived as being capable of satisfying a need
biological perspective
________ __________ focuses on the roles of the nervous system, endocrine system, evolution and heredity.
inherited disposition to activate specific patterns that are designed to reach certain goals. i
Fixed-Action Patterns (FAP)
inherited disposition to activate specific patterns that are designed to reach certain goals. F
chemical secretions detected by members of the same species that stimulate stereotypical behavior
(GUY THAT SAID THIS) tension motivates us to behave in ways that restore ourselves to a resting state.
primary drives
unlearned drives ex. hunger, thirst
acquired drives
drives gained from experience, or learned
steady state
human behavior
______ ______ is mechanical and aimed toward survival and reduction of tension.
self initiated striving to become whatever we believe we are capable of being
(MAN WHO SAID THIS) there is a hierarchy of needs
1) Psychological 2) safety 3) love and belongingness 4) esteem 5) self-actualization
maslow's hierarchy of needs (in order)
cognitive theory
people are born scientists who strive to understand the world so that they can predict and control events
biological theory
theory criticized for providing circular expectations of human behaviors (Chicken or the Egg)
Drive Reduction theory
we often act in ways that increase rather than decrease the tensions acting on us. theory (eat when not hungry)
humanistic theory
too much individual variation for the hierarchy of motives to apply to everyone. theory
cognitive theory
reliance on unobservable concepts such as mental representations rather than observable behavior.
ventromedial nucleus
stop eating center. (PART OF THE BRAIN)
excessive eater (PROBLEM)
lateral hypothalamus
part of the brain that says, "Time to eat."
under eating
obesity/weight loss
lower calorie intake & get up and move stops ______/(Starts)____ ____
when sugar in blood drops, and fat cells send messages to the brain (LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS)
achievement affiliation aggression
the three a's of motivation; each A represents a psychological need
thematic appeception test (TAT)
shown tat cards and told to construct a story and explain leading points and what will happen
performance goals
extrinsic rewards ex. income, toys, candy
learning goals
intrinsic rewards ex. self satisfaction, learning for the sake of learning
association or connection with a group
theory of social comparison
the view that people look to others for cues about how to behave when they are in confusing or unfamiliar situations theory
(MAN WHO SAID THIS) believed that aggressive impulses are inevitable reaction to the frustration of daily life.
the purging of strong emotions or the relieving of tensions
types of learning perspectives
behavioral perspective and social cognitive perspective
behavioral perspective
learning is acquired through reinforcement
social cognitive perspective
ethnicity, gender, culture
a state of feeling that has cognitive physiological and behavioral components
sympathetic nervous system
fight of flight nervous system
parasympathetic nervous system
work or digest nervous system
facial feedback hypothesis
stereotypical facial expressions can contribute to stereotypical emotions hypothesis
James-Lange theory of emotion
theory of emotion ex. when people yell without thought
Canon-Bard theory of emotion
theory of emotion ex. silence(thought)--> reaction
Cognitive-Appraisal theory of emotion
theory of emotion ex. how you react
sensory deprivation
Doctors put a person into a room that was silent except for a hum. what method was used to study the effects
a newly born child
a fertilized ovum. (egg cell)
germinal stage
the first stage of prenatal development during which the dividing mass of cells has not become implanted in the uterine wall.
period of the ovum
another term for the germinal stage
embryonic stage
the baby from the third through the eighth weeks following conceptional during which time the major organ systems rapid differentiation
male sex hormones
amniotic sac
a sac within the uterus that contains the embryo or fetus
a membrane that permits the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the mother and her developing child but does no allow the maternal and fetal bloodstreams to mix
umbilical cord
a tube between the mother and her developing child through which nutrients and waste products are conducted
the baby from the third month following conception through childbirth, during which time there is maturation of organ systems and dramatic gains in length and weight
a simple unlearned response
the turning of an infant's head toward a touch, such as by the mother's nipple
fixation time
the amount of time spent looking at a visual stimulus
according to Piaget, the inclusion of a new event into an existing scheme
according to Piaget, a hypothetical mental structure that permits the classification and organization of new information.
according to Piaget, the modification of schemes so that information inconsistent with existing schemes can be integrated or understood.
object permanence
recognition that objects removed from sight still exist, as demonstrated in young children by continued pursuit.
sensorimotor stage
the first of Piaget's stages of cognitive development, characterized by coordination of sensory information and motor activity, early exploration of the environment, and lack of language
preoperational stage
the second of Piaget's stages, characterized by illogical use of words and symbols, spotty logic, and ego-centrism.
according to Piaget, assuming that others view the world as one does oneself.
the belief that inanimate objects move because of will or spirit
the belief that natural objects have been created by human beings
according to Piaget, recognition that basic properties of substances such as weight and mass remain the same when superficial features change.
according to Piaget, to focus one's attention
objective responsibility
according to Piaget, the assignment of blame according to the amount of damage done rather than the motives of the actor.
concrete-operational stage
Piaget's third stage, characterized by logical thought concerning tangible objects, conservation, and subjective morality.
simultaneous focusing on more than one dimension of a problem. so that flexible, reversible thought becomes possible
subjective moral judgement
according to Piaget, moral judgments that are based on the motives of the perpetrator
according to Piaget, recognition that processes can be undone, that things can be made as they were.
overgeneralizing the use of words to objects and situations to which they do not apply-- a normal characteristic of the speech of young children
a single word used to express complex meanings
the application of regular grammatical rules for forming inflections. (e.g. past tense and plurals to irregular verbs and nouns)
preconventional level
according to Kohlberg, a period during which moral judgments are based largely n expectation of rewards or punishments
conventional level
according to Kohlberg, a period during which moral judgments largely reflect social conventions. a "law-and-order" approach to morality.
trust versus mistrust
Erickson's first stage of psycho-sexual development, during which children do-or do not- come to trust that primary caregivers and the environment will meet their needs.
the enduring affectional tie that binds one person to another
indiscriminate attachment
showing attachment behaviors toward any person.
initial-preattachment phase
the first phase in forming bonds of attachment, characterized by indiscriminate attachment
attachment-in-the-making phase
the second phase in forming bonds of attachment, characterized by preference for familiar figures.
clear-cut-attachment phase
the third phase in forming bonds of attachment, characterized by intensified dependence on the primary caregiver
contact comfort
a hypothesized primary drive to seek physical comfort through contact with another
critical period
a period of time when an instinctive response can be elicited by a particular stimulus
a process occurring during a critical period in the development of an organism, in which that organism responds to a stimulus in a manner that will afterward be difficult to modify.
instrumental competence
ability to manipulate on's environment to achieve one's goals.
authoritative parents
parents who are strict and warm. ______ _______ demand mature behavior but use reason rather than force in discipline
authoritarian parents
parents who are rigid in their rules and who demand obedience for the sake of obedience
permissive parents
parents who impose few, if any, rules and who do not supervise their children closely.
the orderly unfolding of traits, as regulated by the genetic code
psycholinguistic theory
the view that language learning involves an interaction between environmental factors and an inborn tendency to acquire language
language acquisition device
(LAD) in psycholinguistic theory, neural "prewiring" that facilitates the child's learning of grammar.
The period of li bounded by puberty and the assumption of adult responsibilities
The period of physical development during which sexual reproduction first becomes possible.
Secondary sex characteristics
Characteristics that distinguish the sexes, such as distribution of body hair and depth of voice, but that are not directly involved in reproduction.
The beginning of menstruation.
Formal-operational stage
Piaget's fourth stage, characterized by abstract logical thought; deduction from principles
Imaginary audience
An aspect of adolescent egocentrism; the belief that other people are as concerned with our thoughts and behaviors as we are
Personal fable
Another aspect of adolescent egocentrism: the belief that our feelings and ideas are special and unique and that we are invulnerable.
Postconventional level
According to Kohlberg, a period during which moral judgements are derived from moral principles and people look to themselves to set moral standards
Ego identity
Erikson's term for a firm sense of who one is and what be stands for
Role diffusion
Erikson's term for lack of clarity in one's life roles(due to failure to develop ego identity)
the cessation of menstruation
reaction time
the amount of time required to respond to a stimulus
programmed senescence
the view that aging is determined by a biological clock that ticks at a rate governed by genes.
wear-and-tear theory
the view that factors such as pollution, disease, and ultraviolet light contribute to wear and tear on the body, so that the body loses the ability to repair itself
the distinct patterns of behavior, thoughts, and feelings that characterize a person's adaptation to life.
psychodynamic theory
sigmund freud's perspective, which emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as forces that determine behavior. Dynamic refers to the concept of (psychological) forces being in motion.
capable of being brought into awareness by the focusing of attention
in psychodynamic theory, not available to awareness by simple focusing of attention.
a defense mechanism that protects the person from anxiety by ejecting anxiety-evoking ideas and impulses from awareness.
in this usage, Freud's method of exploring human personality.
a blocking of thoughts whose awareness could cause anxiety
psychic structure
in psychodynamic theory, a hypothesized mental structure that helps explain different aspects of behavior.
the psychic structure, present at birth, that represents physiological drives and is fully unconscious.
pleasure principle
the governing principle of the id - the seeking of immediate gratification of instinctive needs.
the second psychic structure to develop, characterized by self-awareness, planning, and delay of gratification.
reality principle
consideration of what is practical and possible in gratifying needs; the governing principle of the ego.
defense mechanism
in psychodynamic theory, an unconscious function of the ego that protects it from anxiety-evoking material by preventing accurate recognition of this material
the third psychic structure, which functions as a moral guardian and sets forth high standards for behavior.
in psychodynamic theory, the unconscious assumption of the behavior of another person.
moral principle
the governing principle of the superego, which sets moral standards and enforces adherence to them.
in psychodynamic theory, the basic instinct to preserve and perpetuate life.
1) in psychodynamic theory, the energy of Eros; the sexual instinct 2) generally, sexual interest or drive
erogenous zone
an area of the body that is sensitive to sexual sensations
psychosexual development
in psychodynamic theory, the process bu which libidinal energy is expressed through different erogenous zones during different stages of development.
oral stage
the first stage of psychosexual development, during which gratification is hypothesized to be attained primarily through oral activities.
in psychodynamic theory, arrested development. attachment to objects of an earlier stage.
anal stage
the second stage of psychosexual development,. when gratification is attained through anal activities.
phallic stage
the third stage of psychosexual development, characterized by a shift of libido to the phallic region.
Oedipus complex
a conflict of the phallic stage in which the boy wishes to possess his mother sexually and perceives his father as a rival in love.
Electra complex
a conflict of the phallic stage in which the girl longs for her father and resents her mother.
a phase of psychosexual development characterized by repression of sexual impulses.
genital stage
the mature stage of psychosexual development, characterized by preferred expression of libido through intercourse with an adult of the other gender.
incest taboo
the cultural prohibition against marrying or having sexual relations with a close blood relative.
analytical psychology
Jung's psychodynamic theory, which emphasizes the collective unconscious and archetypes.
collective unconscious
Jung's hypothesized store of vague racial memories.
basic, primitive images or concepts hypothesized by Jung to reside in the collective unconscious
inferiority complex
feelings of inferiority hypothesized bu Adler to serve as a central motivating force
drive for superiority
Adler's term for the desire to compensate for feelings of inferiority.
creative self
according to Adler, the self-aware aspect of personality that strives to achieve its full potential
individual psychology
alder's psychodynamic theory, which emphasized feelings of inferiority and the creative self.
psychosocial development
Erickson's theory of personality and development, which emphasizes social relationships and eight stages of growth.
ego identity
a firm sense of who one is and what one stands for
a relatively stable aspect of personality that is inferred from behavior and assumed to give rise to consistent behavior.
a trait characterized by intense imaginations and the tendency to inhibit impulses.
a trait characterized by tendencies to be socially outgoing and to express feelings and impulses freely.
Eysenck's term for emotional instability.
descriptive of an explanation that restates its own concepts instead of offering additional information.
social-cognitive theory
a cognitively oriented learning theory in which observational learning and person variables such as values and expectacies play major roles in individual differences.
reciprocal determinism
bandura's term for the social-cognitive view that people influence their environment just as their environment influences them.
person variables
factors within the person, such as expectancies and competencies, that influence behavior.
personal predictions about the outcomes of of potential behaviors
subjective value
the desirability of an object or event
in social-cognitive theory, an organism that exhibits behaviors that others will imitate or acquire through observational learning.
knowledge and skills
interpret; transform
self-efficacy expectations
beliefs to the effect that one can handle a task
the view that people are capable of free choice, self-fulfillment, and ethical behavior
the view that people are completely free and responsible for their own behavior
in humanistic theory, the innate tendency to strive to realize one's potential.
frame of reference
one's unique patterning of perceptions and attitudes according to which one evaluates events.
unconditional positive regard
a persistent expression of esteem for the value of a person, but not necessarily and unqualified acceptance of all of the person's behaviors.
conditional positive regard
judgement of another person's value on the basis of the acceptability of that person's behaviors.
conditions of worth
standards by which the value of a person is judged.
a mental image of what we believe we ought to be.
sociocultural perspective
the view that focuses on the roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in personality formation, behavior, and mental processes.
a person who defines herself or himself in terms of personal traits and gives priority to her or his own goals.
a person who defines herself or himself in terms of relationships to other people and groups and gives priority to group goals
the process of adaptation in which immigrants and native groups identify with a new, dominant culture by learning about that culture and making behavioral and attitudinal changes.
behavior-rating scale
a systematic means for recording the frequency with which target behaviors occur.
a natural ability or talent
objective tests
tests whose items must be answered in a specified, limited manner. tests whose items have concrete answers that are considered correct.
standardized test
a test that is given to a large number of respondents so that data concerning the typical responses can be accumulated and analyzed.
forced-choice format
a method of presenting test questions that requires a respondent to select one of a number of possible answers.
validity scales
groups of test items that indicate whether a person's responses accurately reflect that individual's traits.
clinical scales
groups of test items that measure the presence of various abnormal behavior patterns
response set
a tendency to answer test items according to a bias-for instance, to make oneself seem perfect or bizarre.
projective test
a psychological test that presents ambiguous stimuli onto which the test-taker projects his or her own personality in making a response.
reality testing
the capacity to perceive one's environment and oneself according to accurate sensory impressions
dissociative identity disorder
a disorder in which a person appears to have two or more distinct identities or personalities that may alternately emerge.
multiple personality disorder
the previous DSM term for dissociative identity disorder.
a legal term descriptive of a person judged to be incapable of recognizing right from wrong or of conforming his or her behavior to the law.
a psychotic disorder characterized by loss of control of though processes and inappropriate emotional responses
psychological disorders
patterns of behavior or mental processes that are connected with emotional distress or significant impairment in functioning.
a perception in the absence of sensory stimulation that is confused with reality
ideas of persecution
erroneous beliefs that one is being victimized or persecuted
specific phobia
persistent fear of a specific object or situation
fear of tight, small places
fear of high places
social phobia
an irrational, excessive fear of public scrutiny
fear of open, crowded places
panic disorder
the recurrent experiencing of attacks of extreme anxiety in the absence of external stimuli that usually elicit anxiety
generalized anxiety disorder
feelings of dread and foreboding and sympathetic arousal of at least 6 months' duration
a recurring thought or image that seems beyond control.
an apparently irresistible urge to repeat an act or engage in ritualistic behavior such as hand washing.
posttraumatic stress disorder
a disorder that follows a distressing event outside the range of normal human experience and that is characterized by features such as intense fear, avoidance of stimuli associated with the event, and relieving on the event. PTSD
acute stress disorder
a disorder, like PTSD, that is characterized by feelings of anxiety and helplessness and caused by a traumatic event. Unlike PTSD, ______ _______ _________ occurs within a month of the event and lasts from 2 days to 4 weeks.
gamma-aminobutyric acid
(GABA) an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is implicated in anxiety reactions.
a class of drugs that reduce anxiety; minor tranquilizers
dissociative disorders
disorders in which there are sudden, temporary changes in consciousness or self-identity.
dissociative amnesia
a dissociative disorder marked by loss of memory or self-identity; skills and general knowledge are usually retained. previously termed psychogenic amnesia.
dissociative fugue
a dissociative disorder in which one experiences amnesia and the flees to a new location. Previously termed psychogenic fugue
depersonalization disorder
a dissociative disorder in which one experiences persistent or recurrent feelings that one is not real or is detached from one;s own experiences or body
somatoform disorders
disorders in which people complain of physical problems even though no physical abnormality can be found.
conversion disorder
a disorder in which anxiety or unconscious conflicts are "converted" into physical symptoms that often have the effect of helping the person cope with anxiety or conflict.
la belle indifference
a french term descriptive of the lack of concern sometimes shown by people with conversion disorders.
persistent belief that one has a medical disorder despite lack of medical findings.
major depression
a severe depressive disorder in which the person may show loss of appetite, psychomotor behaviors, and impaired reality testing
psychomotor retardation
slowness in motor activity and (apparently) in thought
bipolar disorder
a disorder in which the mood alternates between two extreme poles (elation and depression). Also referred to as manic-depression
elated, showing excessive excitement
rapid flight of ideas
rapid speech and topic changes, characteristic of manic behavior
learned helplessness
a model for the acquisition of depressive behavior, based on findings that organisms in aversive situations learn to show inactivity when their operants go unreinforced.
attributional style
one's tendency to attribute one's behavior to internal or external factors, stable or unstable factors, and so on.
a personality trait characterized largely be persistent anxiety.
false, persistent beliefs that are unsubstantiated by sensory or objective evidence.
a condition in which the senses and though are dulled.
paranoid schizophrenia
a type of schizophrenia characterized primarily by delusions--commonly or persecution-- and by vivid hallucinations
disorganized schizophrenia
a type of schizophrenia characterized by disorganized delusions and vivid hallucinations.
catatonic schizophrenia
a type of schizophrenia characterized by striking impairment in motor activity.
waxy flexibility
a feature of catatonic schizophrenia in which persons maintain postures into which they are placed.
refusal to talk
personality disorders
enduring patterns of maladaptive behavior that are sources of distress to the individual or others.
paranoid personality disorder
a disorder characterized by persistent suspiciousness, but not involving the disorganization of paranoid schizophrenia.
schizotypal personality disorder
a disorder characterized by oddities of thought and behavior, but not involving bizarre psychotic behaviors.
schizoid personality disorder
a disorder characterized by social withdrawal
antisocial personality disorder
the diagnosis given to a person who is in frequent conflict with society, yet who is undeterred by punishment and experiences little or no guilt and anxiety.
avoidant personality disorder
a personality disorder in which the person is generally unwilling to enter relationships without assurance of acceptance because of fears of rejection and criticism.
eating disorders
psychological disorders that are characterized by distortion of the body image and gross disturbances in eating patterns.
anorexia nervosa
a life-threatening eating disorder characterized y refusal to maintain a healthful body weight, intense fear of being overweight, a distorted body image, and, in females, lack of menstruation (amenorrhea) .
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by recurrent cycles of binge eating followed by dramatic measures to purge the food.
a systematic interaction between a therapist and a client that brings psychological principle to bear on influencing the client's thought, feelings, or behavior to help that client overcome abnormal behavior or adjust to problems in living.
freud's method of psychotherapy
in psychoanalysis, the expression of repressed feelings and impulses to allow the release of the psychic energy associated with them.
free association
in psychoanalysis, the uncensored uttering of all thoughts that come to mind.
the tendency to block the free expression of impulses and primitive ideas- a reflection of the defense mechanism of repression.
an explanation of a client's utterance according to psychoanalytic theory
responding to one person (such as a spouse or the psychoanalyst) in a way that is similar to the way one responded to another person (such as a parent) in childhood
wish fulfillment
a primitive method used by the id to attempt to gratify basic instincts.
phallic symbol
a sign that represents the penis.
manifest content
in psychodynamic theory, the reported content of dreams
latent content
in psychodynamic theory, the symbolized or underlying content of dreams
ego analyst
a psychodynamically oriented therapist who focuses on the conscious, coping behavior of the ego instead of the hypothesized, unconscious functioning of the id.
client-centered therapy
Carl Roger's method of psychotherapy that emphasizes the creation of a warm, therapeutic atmosphere that frees clients to engage in self-exploration and self-expression
unconditional positive regard
acceptance of the value of another person, although not necessarily acceptance of everything the person does.
empathic understanding
ability to perceive a client's feelings from the client's frame of reference. a quality of the good client-centered therapist.
frame of reference
one's unique patterning of perceptions and attitudes, according to which one evaluates events.
recognition and open expression of the therapist's own feelings.
gestalt therapy
Frits Perls' form of psychotherapy, which attempts to integrate conflicting parts of the personality through directive methods designed to help clients perceive their whole selves
behavior therapy
systematic application of the principles of learning to the direct modification of a client's problem behaviors
systematic desensitization
Wolpe's method for reducing fears by associating a hierarchy of images of fear-evoking stimuli with deep muscle relaxation.
an arrangement of stimuli according to the amount of fear they evoke
a behavior-therapy technique in which a client observes and imitates a person who approaches and copes with feared objects or situations
aversive conditioning
a behavior-therapy technique in which undesired responses are inhibited by pairing repugnant or offensive stimuli with them
rapid smoking
an aversive conditioning method for quitting smoking in which the smoker inhales every 6 seconds, thus rendering once0desirable cigarette smoke aversive
token economy
a controlled environment in which people are reinforced for desired behaviors with tokens (such as poker chips) that may be exchanged for privileges.
successive approximations
in operant conditioning, a series of behaviors that gradually become more similar to a target behavior.
keeping a record of one's own behavior to identify problems and record successes.
behavior rehearsal
in assertiveness training, information about the effectiveness of a response
biofeedback training
the systematic feeding back to an organism of information about a bodily function so that the organism can gain control of that function. Abbreviated BFT.
functional analysis
a systematic study of behavior in which one identifies the stimuli that trigger problem behavior and the reinforcers that maintain it.
cognitive therapy
a form of therapy that focuses on how clients' cognitions (expectations, attitudes, beliefs, etc.) lead to distress and may be modified to relieve distress and promote adaptive behavior.
rational emotive behavior therapy
albert ellis's form of therapy that encourages clients to challenge and correct irrational expectations and maladaptive behaviors
encounter group
a type of group that aims to foster self-awareness by focusing on how group members relate to each other in a setting that encourages open expression of feelings.
family therapy
a form of therapy in which the family unit is treated as the client
a method for combining and averaging the results of individual research studies.
rebound anxiety
strong anxiety that can attend the suspension of usage of a tranquilizer
acting to relieve depression
monoamine oxidase inhibitors
antidepressant drugs that work by blocking the action of an enzyme that breaks down noradrenaline and serotonin. abbreviated MAO inhibitors
tricyclic antidepressants
antidepressant drugs that work by preventing the retake of noradrenaline and serotonin by transmitting neurons.
serotonin-uptake inhibitors
antidepressant drugs that work by blocking the re-uptake of serotonin by synaptic neurons.
elctroconvulsive therapy
treatment of disorders like major depression by passing an electric current (that causes a convulsion) through the head. abbreviated ECT.
a drug that relieves nervousness or agitation, or puts one to sleep
surgery intended to promote psychological changes or to relieve disordered behavior.
prefrontal lobotomy
the severing or destruction of a section of the frontal lobe of the brain.