Landforms- Chapter 9, lessons 1-2
Terms in this set (29)
a natural land shape or feature
all kinds of landforms in a certain place
a large, thick sheet of ice
a hill of sand, made and shaped by wind
List details that describe mountains.
a landform that is much higher than the surrounding land. They occur in groups called ranges.
List details that describe hills.
Landforms that are like mountains, but not as high. Most have rounded slopes.
List details that describe plains.
large, flat landform with little relief
the difference in elevation between high and low places
Give an example of a famous plain
Give two examples of famous mountains
Rocky Mountains (tall, jagged peaks)
Appalachian Mountains (lower, more rounded than the Rocky Mountains)
low, long hills formed by materials carried by a glacier. As ice moving scrapes the land beneath it, rocks and other materials are picked up and carried along. This material is deposited when a glacier melts.
differences between a moraine and a hill
moraine- contains rocks, sand, and clay deposited together
(most hills don't contain rocks, sand and clay together)
features that form when a glacier scrapes and scratches the rock beneath it. When the glacier melts, grooves can be seen in the rock.
differences between moraine and sand dune
sand dune- formed by WIND moving sand and made of sand and small bits of rock
moraine- made by GLACIERS moving the rocks and other materials they pick up as they scrapes the rock beneath and made of rocks, sand, and CLAY
tall, flat-topped rock feature
formed when running WATER erodes the surrounding rock
found in the southwest
deep valleys with steep sides formed by WATER
famous example= Grand Canyon
rushing water of a river carves through many layers of rock to form this landform
What landforms of the southwest are formed by water?
Mesa and Canyon
an area of new land at the mouth of a river, formed from sediments carried by the river
large hole formed when the roof of a cave collapses
How can water cause a river's banks to change?
Moving water can dig a mile-deep canyon or change the path of a river. Example: a rapidly flowing river erodes its banks and bottom. Eroding makes the river wider and the bottom deeper. The moving water then carries sediment downstream. When the flow of the water slows down, sediment is deposited. Deposits on a river's bank make it narrower. Deposits on a river's bottom make it shallower.
How can wind change landforms?
Wind blows sand which hits the rocks and wears away rock. This is called weathering. Also, when the wind blows, the pieces move, but when the wind stops, the sand and small pieces of rock drop to form piles. Those piles grow and form sand dunes.
What causes a delta to form?
A river often deposits sediment at its mouth, the place where it empties into the ocean. The flow of the water slows as the river reaches the ocean. As a result, much of the sediment the river is carried is deposited, forming a delta. A delta is the area of new land at the mouth of the river.
What makes wind and water able to move sediment?
Give examples of energy that causes erosion or deposition.
1) rain- splashes away soil, runs downhill and increases speed or ENERGY and carries sediment which over time will erode into gullies or ditches in the ground
2) ocean waves- cause erosion because constant wave action can change sloping shorelines so the cliffs break and get steeper and steeper and eventually collapse into the ocean
ALSO- ocean waves can move more sand onto the beach which is called deposition (sand moved by the energy of fast water)
mouth (of a river)
the place where a river empties into an ocean
How are flood plains formed?
Flooding can deposit sediment near a river. During heavy rains, a flooding river sends water over its banks. When the rain ends, the water slowly returns to the river, but the sediment it carried is deposited on the land. This sediment is rich in the nutrients that plants need. As a result, these flood plains are really good for farming.
What causes a sinkhole to form?
What changes to landforms can ice cause?
Weathering rocks (water flows into cracks in rocks, freezes, expands, makes the cracks bigger, repeat until the rock becomes sand
Glaciers can shape landforms by erosion and deposition. Glaciers can follow a river down a mountain and can change the V shape valley formed by the river into a U-shaped valley
Glaciers deposit their loads of sediment as they begin to melt. The result is a huge moraine like Rhode Island, New York, and Cape Cod.
How do plants affect Earth's landforms in good and bad ways?
1) seed on a rocky slope finds its way into a tiny crack or hole in the rock
2) seed grows into a plant and the roots become large enough to break the rock into smaller pieces AND some plants even release chemicals into the soil that weather rock by dissolving certain materials
1) plants preserve and protect by the roots holding soil and sand in place which prevents erosion by wind and water (example- plants grow on sand dunes)
2) cover crops help return nutrients to the soil to help prevent erosion (These are crops you don't eat such as clover)
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