159 terms

Culinary Fundamentals Vocab

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Conduction is a fairly slow method of heat transfer
because it requires direct contact with heat
Aluminum and copper do not work for induction cooking becuase
they lack magnetic properties
Natural convection
heat rises and cools objects fall creating a circular motion that heats up the product (boiling)
Mechanical convection
involves outside forces such as a fan to evenly distribute the heat (baking)
Radiation cooking
infrared: heated electric or ceramic element reaches a high temp and emits waves

microwave: microwaves enter the food, and cause the water molecules in the food to move around
Protein coagulation
proteins become firmer and drier as they cook, because loss of moisture causes proteins to shrink during heating

after proteins coagulate but foods are cooked more the food actually reverts back to the rare stage, and excessive heat can cause meat proteins to toughen
Shallow frying
cooks food in more fat than sautéing but less than deep frying
Deep frying
food is completely submerged in hot fat
Must control the temperature of oil when shallow frying because
if fat is not hot enough the food will absorb the fat, but if fat is too hot the surface of the food will burn before it cooks on the inside
You must dredge foods in flour before adding to egg wash in standard breading procedure or adding to batter because
the flour helps the egg wash/batter stick to the food
Dredge in seasoned flour because
heat will force seasoning into the food, dredging protects food from intense heat
Oil that should be used for frying
vegetable oil
Permanent emulsions
usually lasts several days, contains an emulsifying agent
Mayonnaise (egg yolks and oil)
Semi-permanent emulsions
usually lasts several hours
Hollandaise (egg yolks and clarified butter)
Temporary emulsions
usually lasts several minutes, does not contain an emulsifying agent
Vinaigrette (oil and vinegar)
Categories of potatoes
Waxy: yellow, blue, red bliss potatoes, new potatoes, hihg moisture content, low starch content, hold their shape well *buy them by the pound

Chefs/all purpose/easton/Prince Edward Island/main potato: yukon gold, work well for most dishes, less starch than a starchy potato, heavy and thick, thin skin, not good for dry cookery, irregular shape, inexpensive
good for mashed potatoes
*buy them by the pound

Russet: Idaho, weston, bakers, russet potatoes, high starch content, low moisture, light, dry when cooked, good for dry cooking methods, baking, frying, sautéing, usually elongated and similar in size *buy them by the count
Standard breading procedure
process that involves a sequence of steps in which food is covered alternately with wet and dry ingredients; the most widely used breading method
Dredge
way to prepare food immediately before sautéing; to dredge a food item, dip it into seasoned flour to coat evenly on all surfaces
Batter
semi-liquid mixture that combines a liquid such as milk,water, or beer, with a starch, usually flour
Leavening agent
causes a baked good to rise by adding carbon dioxide (CO2), steam (water vapor), or air into the mix
Recovery time
the time it takes for equipment to return to its preset temperature
Fortified butter
used to raise smoke-point, mixture of butter and oil - good flavor
Blanching in oil
submerge in hot oil until food is cooked (not much color but cooked) (250 degrees - 325 degrees) drain and then freeze
Cross utilization
using an ingredient, sauce or condiment for a dish where it might not be expected
Fritter
portion of batter or breading filled with bits of meat, seafood, fruit or other ingredients
Croquette
small roll of chopped vegetables, meat or fish fried in breadcrumbs, pureed mixture, must be very firm
Emulsification
method for thickening sauces; made by adding an emulsifying agent to 2 or more liquid ingredients that do not normally combine
Aioli
mayonnaise seasoned with garlic
Tartar sauce
cold sauce, typically eaten with fish, consisting of mayonnaise mixed with chopped pickles, capers, etc.
Remoulade
salad or seafood dressing made with hard boiled egg yolks, oil and vinegar, and flavored with mustard, capers, and herbs
Drawn butter
butter that has been melted, drawn out of the pot and served to the guest
Four benefits of standardized recipes
consistency: customers appreciate consistency
cost control: predict costs and profits associated with an item
quality control: customers expect high quality products
truth in menu: honestly telling guest what the ingredients are
Things you must consider before mathematically altering a standardized recipe
adjustments to ingredients
adjustments to equipment
cooking temperatures
Yield test
tests performed on food products that are prepared for use or service in their raw form
done to find the edible yield percentage or to determine how much of an ingredient is needed for x amount of the usable ingredient
Food cost
(typically 20% - 30% of dollars earned through food sales)
total money spent on food product divided by total food sales
Standardized recipe
written formula customized to meet the needs of a foodservice operation; the most important cost control tool used in a commercial kitchen
Edible portion (EP)
quantities of ingredients that are in their ready to use state
Standard yield
consistent amount of product produced by using the standard quantity and quality of ingredients of the standardized recipe
Standard portion
amount of food that is served in each order
Recipe conversion
changing a recipe to produce a new amount or yield
Conversion factor
new yield/old yield - multiplied to standardized recipe to find the new ingredient quantities
Q factor
questionable cost; a cost that covers all ingredients that have a measure but are insignificant in cost, such as salt, and ingredients that are regularly adjusted as needed; anything you can't measure exactly, about 5% of food cost
Recipe cost
the total cost of preparing a recipe after calculating the measurable ingredients and the estimated cost of the immeasurable ingredients by using a Q factor
Portion cost
the cost of one portion of a standardized recipe
Plate cost
the portion cost of several recipes added together to determine the price of a menu item
Volume
the amount of space an ingredient occupies
Weight
mass or heaviness of an ingredient
As purchased (AP)
food as is when purchased; pay for AP not EP
Demi glace
equal parts (volume) of fond brun and espagnole sauce, a bouquet garni with tarragon in it, madiera wine
boil fond brun, add espagnole sauce, boil again, simmer, add bouquet garni and wine, reduce by half

used on top of red meat that has been roasted or grilled, beef stew, roasted turkey
not used on potatoes, broccoli, cauliflower, chicken
Chicken WOG
chicken without giblets
Slacking
letting food defrost naturally (in fridge) to slow bacteria growth
Shrimp
IQF: individually quick frozen
DVQ: peeled, deveined, and cooked, quick frozen shrimp
Sauté
method of heat transfer: conduction
cooked in a minimum amount of fat at med-high temp
best for delicate foods that cook quickly
Preparation of foods to be sautéed
mise en place is important because it is such a quick cooking method
must have clarified butter/oil on hand
prepare/trim item to be sautéed
dredge
-avoid dredging in advance and don't stack or overlap items
if fat is too cold the food will absorb the fat and will not come out well
don't overcrowd the pan because too much food lowers the temperature, inhibits the browning, and causes food to emit natural juices
Leading sauce
basic sauces from which many other sauces are derived
Compound sauce
sauces that have something added to the leading sauce
Perfect hollandaise sauce
a buttery acidic flavor, and is light, smooth, and pale yellow in color
should not show any separation
Holding a sauce so that it doesn't form a skin
cover the sauce with a lid
spread melted butter over the surface of the sauce to seal it
place oil, plastic wrap or buttered parchment directly on top of the sauce
Making a temporary emulsion last longer
add an egg yolk or whole grain mustard
Sauteuse
sauté pan with sloped sides; the sloping sides allow food items to be flipped without the aid of a spatula
Sautoir
sauté pan; straight-sided shallow pan with a long handle that is used to sauté or fry foods
Deglaze
to swirl a liquid, such as wine, water, or stock, in a sauté pan to dissolve cooked particles of food that have stuck to the bottom of the pan
Á la minute
prepared to order, not prepared in advance then held for service
Monte au beurre
"to mount with butter"
finish a sauce with butter
Marinade
flavorful liquids that can impart flavors into products and tenderize them
used to flavor, tenderize, slow bacteria growth
usually consists of an acid, oil, seasonings/flavorings

be careful because marinading can change the texture of the product or can overpower the flavor of the meats
Brine
mixture of water, salt (inhibits bacterial growth, preserves flavor), sugar (inhibits bacterial growth and cuts saltiness) and other seasonings
intended to preserve food, impart flavor in food, help retain and improve moisture within food
boil it, cool it, pour it on food overnight
Cure
uses of salt, sugar, spices, flavoring, and nitrates to help preserve the meat by removing moisture and limiting bacterial growth, stabilize the meats color and add flavor
Sauce Forestiére
wild mushroom sauce
Hollandaise
sauce with a buttery/acidic flavor and is light, smooth, and is pale yellow in color
an egg yolk will hold between 2 and 3 oz of butter
rain in the butter to the hollandaise sauce or it will separate
the sauce should nappé the back of a stainless steel spoon
Béarnaise
rich sauce made with clarified butter, emulsified egg yolks, white wine vinegar, and herbs such as tarragon
béarnaise reduction: tarragon leaves, tarragon vinegar (steeping vinegar into the leaves) and a cheese cloth with shallots, bay leaf, parsley stems, and whole white peppercorns
Chiffonade
cut that creates fine ribbons or strips of leafy herbs or vegetables, resulting in shreds, used as a garnish or in a salad like coleslaw
Microplane
graters used for grating of various food items such as nutmeg and cheese and also as zesters for citrus fruit
Saving a broken hollandaise
1. add broken hollandaise to cold water
2. pour it into shaved ice
3. add whipped egg yolks (before you put the butter in)
4. add raw egg yolks
5. mix broken hollandaise with a finished hollandaise
6. add a slurry
Truss/brider
to secure a piece of meat
-to keep its shape
-for uniform cooking
-appearance
Scald milk
heating milk just under a boil
Render
taking an animal fat and changing it from a solid to a liquid state
-used to sauté/make a roux
Espagnole
leading sauce
Fat vs. oil
fat comes from an animal
oil comes from vegetables
Broiling
heat comes from top, grid iron goes up/down
Grilling
heat source comes from bottom, put on hot grid iron
dry heat from below, mainly radiation (heat waves from fire + coals), conduction (grates), convection (in between grates or if a top is on)
can brine or marinade food before grilling

can grill
-some vegetables
-tender cuts of meat: ribeye, strip steak, porter house, filet mignon, tenderloin, pork chop, pork loin, chicken breast, chicken tenderloins, lamb chops
-lean fish that has some structure to it: shrimp, scallops
-to grill a working muscle you must marinade it to make it more tender
Salamander
on top of fire (gas/electric grill), used to melt cheese, or brown something
Vinaigrette
temporary emulsion of two liquids that normally don't like each other
Glace
stock reduced by 85%-90% of its volume
high in sodium, and sugar
dark
used to fortify liquids or stocks
The bigger the squash
the more seeds and more water that are in the squash
The thicker the skin on a lemon
the cheaper it is
Extra virgin olive oil
1st press of the olives
Hollandaise
egg yolks, clarified butter, cool water/cool reduction, salt, seasonings, tabasco, cayenne pepper, worcestershire sauce

whip egg yolks and cool water/reduction, slowly add butter once you can write your name in it
Before grilling
preheat grill well (to ensure better searing/marking and less sticking)
brush grates
oil grill lightly (to prevent sticking)
Seasoning food vs. flavoring food
seasoning: herbs and spices
herbs: leaf or flower of plant
spices: root, bark, branch, stem or seed of a plant (fresh, dried, or powdered)

flavoring: adding an extract to the food product, and it may become the predominant taste
Don't season food too far in advance of grilling
to avoid moisture loss, salt will especially affect moisture loss

sometimes you want to season the food when it is warm because the pores are still open
Making a pan gravy from grilled items
use the meat trimmings by placing a sheet tray under the grill to catch any drippings
Working muscle
part of the body that gets a lot of exercise
Black and blue (Pittsburgh rare)
Look: charred exterior, bright red interior
Feel: very soft
Temp: 120 degrees or less, but probably actually 60 - 70 degrees
Rare
Look: very red interior
Feel: very juicy + soft to the touch
Temp: 120 - 130 degrees
Medium rare
Look: red interior
Feel: soft + juicy
Temp: 135 degrees
Medium
Look: band of gray around outside, pink center
Feel: bouncy + juicy
Temp: 140 - 150 degrees
Medium well
Look: gray through most of the interior, slight pinkness in juice
Feel: just firm to the touch
Temp: 160 degrees
Well done
Look: gray throughout
Feel: firm to touch
Temp: 170 - 185 degrees
Flank steak
working muscle
must be marinaded for about 12-24 hours, should be turned
must be cut against the grain
dry the marinade off before grilling
Veal
immature cow, slaughtered between 4-6 months in age
drinks milk from plastic pale because metal pale will turn the meat darker
light colored meat
fed grain
"baby beef" (cheap veal) 9-12 months old
Truss
tying a bird's wings and legs against its body to form a compact whole
it looks better, cooks evenly and retains moisture
Searing
searing produces a more flavorful roast with a crisp, brown, caramelized exterior
manual searing: heat oil/fat, brown all sides
oven searing: place food in roasting pan, cook in preheated oven (450-500 degrees) for 15-20 min, reduce oven temp to 325-350 degrees so that food cooks slowly and evenly
Barding
taking a fat and wrapping it around the meat
adds moisture, flavor, texture
more common because it is easier
Larding
process that involves inserting long, thin strips of fat and sometimes vegetables into the center of meat to add moisture and sometimes for visual appeal

inserting fat inside of the meat
usually want to lard lean meat
use a lardoom to put fat inside the meat
Roasting
elevate a roast to allow hot air to circulate around the food (so that it cooks evenly) and prevent it from cooking in its own juices and fat
can elevate food on a rack or a bed of mirepoix

size of the pan helps to cook foods evenly: too big a pan drippings and vegetables may burn, too deep or too crowded the roast may not brown

don't cover roasts because it will prevent browning
turn the roast to ensure that all sides of the product get browned

allow to rest before carving because it allows the meat fibers to relax and keep the juices in the roast

the roast is finished once it reaches the required internal temperature
Mirepoix
2 parts onion
1 part celery
1 part carrots
1 part leeks
cut in uniform sizes, size depends on the cooking time: longer cooking time means bigger pieces
Sauces you can make with fond from the pan
pan gravy: made by singering
au jus: sauce without a thickener
jus lie: sauce made with a slurry
use reduced stocks to make pan sauces so that the sauces are not as watery
Degrease
remove excess grease from the roasting pan, then deglaze it to make a pan sauce

some grease should be reserved for making a roux
Reduce wine au sec
reduce wine until dry to cook out the alcohol
Slurry
uncooked thickening agent
made by diluting a pure starch in a cold liquid
Cornstarch vs. arrowroot for thickening
cornstarch: (add to a cool liquid then add that to a warm liquid)
pros: inexpensive
cons: poor holding power, makes foods cloudy
arrowroot: fine powder, twice thickening power of flour, does not lose thickening properties when cooked, more transparent appearance on sauces
Singer
when pan used to sauté an entrée or a food itself is dusted with flour
the fat in the pan absorbs the flour forming a roux
Dépouillage
skim impurities off the surface
Nappé
lightly coat food with a sauce
sauce with a good consistency: should coat the back of a spoon
Baking
the cover is removed from baked items at the end of the baking process to allow the product to brown

baked goods are generally cooked between 325 and 350 degrees depending on the product, it is better to bake in a conventional oven

fish, fruit, bread, and pastries are usually baked instead of roasted
Carré
largest dice cut (3/4" square)
Oblique
sides are neither parallel nor perpendicular, but cut on an angle with vegetable rolled after each cut, used for vegetables like parsnips, carrots, and celery
Roasting plaque
deep rectangular pan used for roasting
Baking sheet pan
rectangular, shallow sided pans suitable for baking a variety of foods, such as chicken breasts, meat loaves, sheet cakes and rolls
Brider
means the same thing as truss
Fond
drippings in a pan
Buerre manié
an uncooked thickening agent of equal parts flour and butter
Jus
juice used as gravy for a roast
Au jus
natural juices
1. degrease
2. deglaze
3. reduce 50%
4. season
Jus lié
lighter version of a brown sauce thickened with an arrowroot or cornstarch slurry
1. degrease
2. deglaze/reduce by 50%
3. slurry
4. season
Pan gravy
sauces that incorporate the pan drippings of roasted meat or poultry
1. singer
2. deglaze
3. simmer
4. season
Béchamel
leading sauce made by thickening milk with a white roux and adding seasoning
Mornay
bechamel sauce with shredded/grated cheese and egg yolk added
Soubise
bechamel sauce with the addition of onion puree
*something that is pureed
Panada
liquid starch mixture that tenderizes and adds smoothness and moisture to force meats; it also produces a higher yield
Tourné
cut that trims and shapes vegetables like potatoes, beets, or carrots
Roasted vs. baked chicken
roasted chicken is usually whole while baked chicken is usually broken down
Pernil
spanish word that denotes a piece of meat that has been slow cooked (usually pork)
Au gratin
with cheese
Eggs packing method
4
6
8
12
18
flats of 30
half case: 15 dozen
whole case: 30 dozen
Purge
natural liquid that comes out of meat
Short ribs
working muscle
by product of a 103 (prime rib) when you remove the bone it becomes a 112
Ground beef percentage of meat to percentage of fat
70-30
75-25
80-20 *most common
85-15
90-10
95-5
Viscosity ratio
10% minimum viscosity (soup)
11.5% medium viscosity (sauce)
13% maximum viscosity (stew/gravy)
Ideal foods for braising
large, tough cuts of meat
working muscles
mature poultry or game, cabbage, celery, lettuces, leeks
Mise en place for braising
prepare food, cut vegetables, trim meat, cut meat/poultry into large pieces or leave whole and truss, need fat, cooking liquid, mirepoix, seasoning, flavoring, thickening agent, heavy bottom braising pan
Methods of heat transfer when braising and stewing
dry heat: conduction
moist heat: conduction/convection
How to make cooking liquid from braising into a sauce
remove food from pan, strain liquid into saucepan, reduce liquid by simmering, or add roux, cornstarch, or arrowroot to thicken the liquid, taste, season; natural thickening agent: puree vegetables then add it to the sauce
Braise is finished cooking if
food is fork tender but doesn't break apart
vegetables are tender
internal temp is good - minimum of 155 degrees
Similarities/Differences between braising and stewing
similarities:
-combination cooking methods
-similar products (meat/poultry/vegetables)
-produce very flavorful liquids

differences:
-stewing uses smaller pieces of food
-liquid completely covers the food in stewing
-stewed foods are usually served with their cooking liquid
Brown stew vs. white stew
brown stew:
-meat is browned
-brown liquid
-brown roux
-tomato product
-browned vegetables
-red wine

white stew:
-cook meat in moist heat because it won't add any color
-blanched vegetables
-white liquid
-white wine
-white roux
Braising and stewing break down the connective tissues of food because
collagen, the fine intramuscular network, also found between large muscle groups, converts into gelatin with moist cooking and low heat; and liquid gets heated and as it goes into the product it becomes fork tender
Braising
cooking food in a small amount of seasoned and flavored liquid over low heat, usually after initial browning
Stew
a combination cooking method for cooking smaller pieces of food in liquid after browning or blanching
Bouquet garni
collection of aromatics used to flavor stocks, soups, and stews
Fork tender
fork should enter with little resistance and should be easily withdrawn
Maillard reaction
when reducing sugars are heated in the presence of proteins, browning occurs
Connective tissue
web of proteins that performs several functions: it covers individual muscle fibers; bundles together and attaches them to bones
Citrus supreme
remove skin, pith, membranes, and seeds, and to separate them into segments
Parmentier
1/2 inch square dice
Cartouche
round piece of parchment paper that covers surface of a stew, soup or stock to reduce evaporation, to prevent a skin from forming, and to keep contents submerged
Method of prep of braising
1. MEP
2. prepare meat
3. sear meat
4. sauté aromatics
5. singer
6. deglaze
7. stock
8. boil + simmer
9. cover/place in oven
10. finish sauce
Method of prep of stewing
1. MEP
2. prepare meat
3. sear meat
4. sauté aromatics
5. singer
6. deglaze
7. braising liquid
8. boil + simmer
9. cook on stovetop
10. other vegetables
11. finish sauce
Carryover cooking
internal temperature cooks more; about 30 minutes
products rest so that the juices don't go all over the place