35 terms

Gilded Age terms

Gilded Age
age of American history from 1877-1900 defined by political stagnation, forgettable presidents, and corruption
solid South
refers to the strong support of Democrats in the South from 1877 to the turn of the century
Roscoe Conkling
a powerful Republican leader who provided jobs to the party faithful in the New York Customs House
supporters of Roscoe Conkling and the Republicans
supporters of James G. Blaine and opponents of Roscoe Conkling
fence sitters in partisan Gilded Age politics
Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican elected 1876; most significantly ended Reconstruction by removing federal troops form the South; attempted to get rid of corrupt tendencies; no liquor in the White House; did not want to restrict Chinese immigration
James Garfield
Democrat elected in 1880; gave offices to Halfbreeds; assassinated in 1881
Chester A. Arthur
Democrat into office 1884; formerly Garfield's VP; distqanced himself from Stalwarts; supported bill reforming civil service; approved development of modern navy; questioned the high protective tariff
Thomas Reid
Irish American author who wrote about the American West, Mexico, and other untamed areas;
James G. Blaine
leader of the Halfbreeds; reshaped the Republican party from antislavery to business-oriented; lost election of 1884 to Cleveland because of evidence of his corruption in railroad scandals
Grover Cleveland
Democrat elected 1884; believed in limited government; passed the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 (regulated business) and the Dawes Act (to benefit Native Americans) ; reclaimed government land
Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion
label of the Democratic Party in the election of 1884 because he had fathered and illegitimate child
Pendleton Act
created a Civil Service system in which people would be elected based on merit and their score on a competitive test; prohibited civil servants from making political contributions; politicians began to depend more on the wealthy
Greenback Party
favored policy with money not backed by specie; angered by the Specie Resumption Act which withdrew greenbacks printed during the Civil War; party died out after the hard times of the 1870s
James B. Weaver
Populist Party candidate in election of 1892; one the few third party candidates to win electoral votes
Crime of 1873
the name critics gave to the government's removal of greenbacks and stop of silver coining
Bland-Allison Act (1878)
passed over Hayes' veto; allowed coinage of silver between 2 and 4 million dollars each month; did not satisfy farmers, debtors, and miners
Benjamin Harrison
Republican winner of election of 1888; swept the Northern vote; during his first two years Republicans controlled Congress and presidency
billion dollar Congress
enacted the McKinley Tariff , increased pensions to Civil War Veterans, Sherman Antitrust Act, Sherman Silver Purchase Act, passed later defeated bill to protect voting rights of African Americans
veterans' pensions
increased by the billion dollar Congress under Benjamin Harrison
McKinley Tariff (1890)
raised the tax on foreign products to over 48 %
Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
increased coinage of silver but not enough to satisfy farmers who wanted unlimited coinage of silver
Populist/ People's Party
based on the Omaha platform; called for political and economic reform; wanted direct election of U.S. senators and state laws enacted by voters themselves; unlimited coinage of silver, graduated income tax, public ownership of railroads, telegraph and telephone systems controlled by gov, loans and federal warehouses for farmers, eight hour workdays
Omaha Platform
beliefs of the Populist Party; first drafted in 1892
Panic of 1893
stock market crashed and railroads went bankrupt from over building; 20% unemployment; Cleveland favored the gold standard and a hands-off policy to fix the economy
gold drain
U.S. gold reserve fell to dangerously low levels when investors began to trade in their silver dollars for gold dollars; Cleveland repealed Sherman Silver Purchase Act but that didn't solve the issue; $65 million in godl borrowed from J.P. Morgan
Coxey's Army
1894 march of the unemployed to Washington demanding gov spend $ to create more jobs
William Havey: Coin's Financial School
convinced Americans that financial troubles were caused by conspiracy of rich bankers; unlimited coined silver was the answer
Willliam Jennings Bryan, "Cross of Gold"
made Bryan the Democrat nominee for election of 1896; represented want for unlimited coinage of silver
free silver
unlimited coinage of silver
WIlliam McKinley
Republican winner election of 1896; supported a high protective tariff but also was a friend of labor; blamed the Democrats for Panic of 1893 in his campaign
Gold Bug Democrats
part of the Democratic Party that broke away from the principle of unlimited coinage of silver and the rest of the Democratic Party; included Grover Cleveland
Mark Hanna
McKinley's head of campaign; promoted him through the mass media; given advantage by the split of the Democrats; raised billions of dollars from business owners who wanted to protect their businesses
Dingley Tariff (1897)
higher tariff enacted by Republicans upont he 1896 victory of McKinley