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51 terms

Ch 13 Cardiovascular: Vessels

Dr Davila Medical Careers Institute, ECPI University Human Anatomy & Physiology II BIO 104
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vascular system
consists of arteries, veins, and capillaries, through which blood circulates
heart blood flow
IVC/SVC→RA→tricuspid→RV→pulmonary valve →p. trunk→p. arteries→LUNGS→p. veins→LA→bicuspid→LV→aortic valve→aorta→BODY
lumen
cavity or passage in a tubular organ
(ie, through which blood flows)
artery
smaller, thick-walled vessels carrying high-pressure blood AWAY from heart;
all arteries carry O2-blood (red), except pulmonary artery
arteriole
small branch off an artery
capillary
microscopic vessels connecting arterioles to venules;
where material exchange occurs (eg, gas, nutrients) via diffusion, osmosis, & filtration;
often only 1-cell thick
venule
small branches into a vein
vein
larger, thin-walled vessels carrying low-pressure blood IN to heart;
1-way valves & skeletal muscles help return blood to heart;
all veins carry de-O2-blood (blue), except pulmonary vein
tunica adventitia
outer layer of blood vessel;
fibrous connective tissue;
aka tunica externa
tunica externa
outer layer of blood vessel;
fibrous connective tissue;
aka tunica adventitia
tunica media
middle layer of blood vessel;
smooth muscle tissue;
thicker in arteries than veins
tunica intima
inner layer of blood vessel;
smooth endothelium and underlying connective tissue;
aka tunica interna
tunica interna
inner layer of blood vessel;
smooth endothelium and underlying connective tissue;
aka tunica intima
endothelium
smooth, innermost lining of blood vessels
cardiopulmonary circulation
heart pumps de-O2 blood to lungs & receives O2 blood from lungs;
RV→pulm. valve.→pulm. trunk→pulm arteries→LUNGS→pulm. veins→LA
systemic circulation
heart pumps O2 (oxihemoglobin), nutrients, water, hormones & wastes to and from all organ systems;
LA→aortic valve→aorta→BODY→IVC/SVC→RA
aorta
largest artery in body;
attached to left ventricle;
parts: ascending, arch, descending (thoracic and abdominal)
coronary artery
1 of 2 arteries, which branch off base of ascending aorta;
provde O2-rich blood to myocardium
pulmonary trunk
artery carrying blood from right ventricle;
branches into L&R pulmonary arteries
brachiocephalic artery
first artery branching off aortic arch;
further divides into right common carotid and right subclavian artery
common carotid artery
1 of 2 arteries (L & R), which
branch off either brachiocephalic (R) or artic arch (L);
provide blood to entire head;
further divides into internal and external carotid arteries
internal carotid artery
1 of 2 arteries (L & R), which
branch off common carotid arteries;
provide blood to brain
external carotid artery
1 of 2 arteries (L & R), which
branch off common carotid arteries;
provide blood to face, head, & neck
right subclavian artery
branched off of the brachiocephalic;
courses beneath clavicle towards armpit to become axillary artery;
branches off a vertebral artery (to brain)
vertebral artery
1 of 2 arteries that branch off subclavian arteries, then course up vertebrae into brain
left common carotid artery
second branch off aortic arch;
provides blood to neck & head;
further divides into internal and external carotid arteries
left subclavian artery
third branch off aortic arch;
courses beneath clavicle towards armpit to become axillary artery;
branches off a vertebral artery (to brain)
lower thoracic aorta
superior part of descending aorta, which supplies blood to chest organs
(eg, lungs, diaphragm, esophagus, chest muscles)
abdominal aorta
inferior part of descending aorta (beneath diphragm), which supplies blood to abdominal organs;
branches into L & R common iliac arteries
common iliac artery
1 of 2 arteries (L & R) that branch off the end of descending aorta; course into pelvis, then branches into internal and external iliac arteries
vasoconstriction
blood vessel tightening, which decreases diameter, or size of lumen;
also increases blood pressure
smooth muscle in tunica media contracts
vasodilation
blood vessel relaxes, which increases lumen size;
also decreases blood pressure
smooth muscle in tunica media relaxes;
aka vasodilatation
jugular vein
one of the veins that collect blood from head: brain (L&R internal), face (L&R external), and chin (anterior);
all flow into the brachiocephalic veins, which connect to SVC
great saphenous vein
longest vein in body;
drains blood from foot, leg, and thigh;
joins with femoral vein
coronary sinus
vein that returns de-O2 blood from heart to RA
hepatic portal circulation
liver blood vessels that connect two capillary beds: arteries→caps→portal vein→caps
fetal circulation
special vessels and circulation present in fetus;
includes de-O2 blood in umbilical arteries coursing to placenta, and O2 nutrient-rich blood via umbilical veins
placenta
vascular uterine structure conected to fetus via umbilical cord;
providing O2 and nutrients to fetus and removes wastes from fetus
blood flow
affected by:
1. blood pressure differences
2. friction (with vessel & cells)
3. blood viscosity (thickness)
4. length and diameter of blood vessels
systolic pressure
higher arterial pressure caused by ventricular contraction;
top number in blood pressure reading
pulse pressure
difference between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure;
Pulse = (systolic) - (diastolic)
diastolic pressure
lower arterial pressure during ventricular relaxation;
bottom number in blood pressure reading
resistance
any mechanical force that slows or opposes motion; resistance opposes pressure;
smaller blood vessels have higher resistance;
larger blood vessels have lower resistance
pressure
force pushing on an area or surface;
in blood, pressure must overcome resistance for blod to flow (circulate)
pulse point
place where artery may be compressed against bone with fingertips to feel pulse;
big 3: brachial, radial, external carotid
median cubital vein
vein between the brachial and antebrachial regions (anterior to cubitus, or elbow);
often chosen for venipuncture along with nearby basalic & cephalic veins
dural sinuses
large dural gaps that drain venous blood from brain into internal jugular v.
brachiocephalic vein
veins formed by union of internal jugular and subclavian veins;
brachiocephalic veins fuse into superior vena cava
blood aging
3 changes:
1. less hematocrit
2. blood clots (thrombus)
3. blood pooling in legs
heart aging
5 changes:
*1. less cardiac output
2. atherosclerosis (hardening)
3. conduction system dysfunction*
4. damaged muscle replaced by scar
5. reduced cardiac skeleton elasticity
vessel aging
3 changes:
1. thrombi (clots)
2. less elastic arteries (possible aneurysm)
3. calcium deposits (hardening)