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Arts and Humanities
Islam and the Gospel
Terms in this set (73)
the religion of Muslims collectively which governs their civilization and way of life: literally means submission
the leader of the Friday worship service who directs the prayers and delivers a sermon
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community.
"messenger"; one who delivers a message from God; the third role of Muhammad the prophet: he speaks for God
The Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam
A semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla; that is, the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca
The direction of Mecca, towards which Muslims turn in prayer, literally means the direction of prayer, facing toward Mekkah. In mosque architecture, the _____ wall indicates the orientation of prayer.
One who proclaims the call to prayer
One who submits, An adherent of the Islamic religion; a person who 'submits' (in Arabic, Islam means 'submission') to the will of God.
Prophetic tradition, A tradition relating the words or deeds of the Prophet Muhammad; next to the Quran, the most important basis for Islamic law.
The Prophetic practice, an Islamic model for living, based on the life and teachings of Muhammad
Divine Unity, ONE God and nothing is like Him, asserts monotheism; God ≠ Creation
Anthropomorphism, with respect to God (in the Power Point for Belief also Immanence or the merciful attribute of tawhid of Allah) , closeness; affirming similarity', i.e. affirming Allah's nearness to humanity
Transcendence of Allah. Along with tashbih, two attributes of God put into balance to create tawhid, _____ being wrath
Associationism, attributing "partners" to God , The sin of regarding anything as an equal or partner of Allah
Muslim law , the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
Professing Islam, bearing witness that there is no god but God, and that muhammad is his messenger, The confession of faith, the first of the Five Pillars and central creedal statement of Islam: "There is no god except God. Muhammad is the messenger of God."
Muhammad's "night journey" or ascension , The beginning of the night journey of the prophet. Muahammad was sleeping in the Hijr or Ka'ba complex (not in the Ka'ba itself). He was awakened by Gabriel and led to the gate where a white beast with wings waited for him. Then the beast takes him to the furthest mosque where he leads Abraham, Moses, and Jesus in prayer. This is also where he receives the revelation to pray five times a day
the phrase that is repeated before every prayer which says "in the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful"
chapter , A chapter of the Quran. This word literally means "fence" or "enclosure". There are 114 _____ in the Quran, arranged in the order of descending length
prophethood, means prophethood and denotes that God has appointed perfect prophets and messengers to teach mankind gods religion
Beauty/ Excellence/ Intentions/ state of heart/ Attitude, "Doing the beautiful." _____ considers the soul or an individuals intentions.
The Resurrection after death, the resurrection after death, the return/ judgment day
The "intermediary world," Purgatory, Purgatory or intermediate world of spirits; each spirit has full awareness as he/she experiences a taste of what will follow the judgment
Qur'an's name for the devil , the name for Satan in the Quran like the devil in Christian theology, he tempts human beings and seeks to thwart God's divine purpose in history
A form of charitable giving, incumbent on those who can afford it , the fourth pillar of Islam is almsgiving as an act of worship
Month of Fasting
A unit (of canonical prayer),
are the prescribed movements and words followed by Muslims during worship.
supplication, invoking God, literally meaning invocation, is an act of supplication. It is personal prayer unto God.
Canonical Prayer, daily ritual prayers(dawn,noon, midday, sunset, after nightfall), the second pillar of Islam is prayer
alms, Charitable devotion, refers to any charity or alms which are contributed to the community above and beyond the minimum required as zakat
a tax to support Shi'ite clergy, original one-fifth of war booty ,
Part of 4th Pillar, means 'a fifth' give 20% of income of certain items after personal needs have been met, also pays for shi'ite clergy.
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah, the fifth of the Five pillars; the journey to mecca that all muslims are to make at least once in their lifetime, if they can afford it and are physically able
The ritual Garb of the hajj pilgrims, robe which the undertakers of the Hajj wear on Hajj, symbolize equality, willingness to die, purity
It means struggle, especially personal (struggle of the heart to obey God), not necessarily violent or militaristic
Striving against one's own desires while in God's service
Fighting in a holy war which, according to Shari'a is only legitimate for defensive purposes
Sufi path or brotherhood, Mystical Term. Literally means the way, path or method. Technically, refers to the path to a deeper relationship with God in religion. Contextually, the Shar'ia is what everyone follows, but _____ is your own choice. Leads you closer to God and helps you to become the perfect human being. _______ is another name for Sufism, or the search for "truth"
The methodical repetition of the names of God, A devotional remembrance of Allah through the recitation of his ninety-nine names and other devotional practices
A term for sufi mystics , Danced wildly and so exerted themselves that they fell into a trance where they supposedly connected with Allah
the first major islamic revival movement that took place in the 18th century.
-Founder: Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
-called for a return to the pristine faith that was practiced by the Prophet
-viewed community state founded by the Prophet as a golden age
-today, even though there are a relatively small number of people that follow the conservative Wahhabi creed, they have a considerable amount of influence b/c of Saudi money that funds Mosques, etc. ,
Dominant form of Islam in Saudi Arabia, Developed in the 18th century by Muslim theologian Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhad, Advocated purging of Islam of what he considered to be impurities and innovations
- founded in 1928 by an Egyptian school teacher. began initially as a youth group that had an emphasis on moral regeneration.
-with Zionist activity in Palestine, the organization began to merge with political ideals
-1939 became a political party
-aimed to liberate Muslim world from foreign domination and create a truly Islamic gov't
-involved in various assassinations, and grew in popular support as it became opposed by government.
- Believe Ali to be the first Imam. Believe that only God has the right to appoint a successor to His Prophet. pray only 3 times a day verses 5 times
Like Joseph Smith...--Founder of Medina, Pact of Medina = peace btw muslims jews and christians. --Great mediator (Kaaba stone/cloak/sheiks story)-- Thought about God and social justice a lot.--A very just man, well respected, good businessman. --Restored the faith, was seal of prophets, final messenger-- Rasool. Great Conquerer. Listened to advice of others ( eg The Persian, battle of the pit)
B. 570 AD, D. 632
Muhammad's wife, wealthy widowed trader who employed Muhammad, proposed marriage to him, 15 years his senior, happy marriage for love, one one daughter survived
the daughter of Muhammad. Super Holy, thought of kind of like some christian religions think of the virgin Mary. She was married to Ali and bore Hasan and Husayn. There is hadith about her.
- one of the first converts to Islam. the Fourth Caliph. was assassinated in 661 CE while praying by one of Mu'awiya's supporters. , The fourth caliph or successor of Muhammad. He was also the Prophet's cousin. He is revered by Shi'a Muslims as the rightful first caliph
he was a cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; after his assination Islam was divided into Shiite and Sunnite sects
first Caliph, commissioned Zayd to gather all revelations into one volume --> several written copies produced , Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death., One of the 1st 4 caliphs. Father-in-law of Muhammad. A merchant. Spread Islam to all of Arabia. Restored peace after death of Muhammad; created code of cunduct in war; compiled Quarn verses
- Succeeded Abu Bakr. 2nd CAliph. Not spiritual, but more of a military leader ("Commander of the faithful"). Conquered Persia and almost entire Eastern Roman Empire. Ensured loyalty of the conquered by being nice.
- third Caliph, issued a standardization of Qur'an, burned all non-official copies, used Zayd's work Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan.
- Governor of Damascus; proclaimed himself Caliph (starts ummayad dynasty)= rude/mailicious to Ali because Ali wouldn't punish Uthman's assassins. Ali and Mu'awwiya ad the Battle of the Camel, and Mu'awwiya had a nice army, and then they held up torn copies of the Qur'an on their swords, which freaked Ali out, so he wanted to have a TALK with them, but the ...
...Kharijites didn't think Talking with the Enemy was right. Then they broke away. ALi and Mu'awwiya went their separate ways. Then, after the Kharijites were punished by Ali and his troops, they got mad, joined the other team (Mu'awwiya's) and finally, they stole into ALi's quarters whilst he was praying and cut off his head.
Another minority, called ...........disallowed any form of dynastic succession, believing that only a Muslim free of all sin was fit to lead
didn't think Talking with the Enemy was right. Then they broke away. ALi and Mu'awwiya went their separate ways. Then, after the Kharijites were punished by Ali and his troops, they got mad, joined the other team (Mu'awwiya's) and finally, they stole into ALi's quarters whilst he was praying and cut off his head.
- The son of Caliph Mu'awiya. seen as inept and licentious; many refused to pay allegiance to him, being so "morally bankrupt". Led the Karbala Massacre against Husain, the prophet's grandson. , Mu'waiya's son and successor; believed to have stolen the caliphate and not be a good Muslim
Grandson of Muhammad and son of Ali and Fatimah. He was martyred when refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid I of the Umayyad Caliphate and especially revered by the Shi'a Muslims for thisMurdered, head on a pike, not cool = Shiites finally split. Died in the battle of Karbala
Leader of Quraysh tribes. Didn't like Mohammmad and persecuted him, later accepted Islam., was the leader of the Quraish and a very important person in Mecca. After a significant amount of fighting, Mohammed and *****
join together to create the treaty of hudabiyah. The Quraish violate this treaty in 630 Ce and the prophet and the Umma go into the hills surrounding Mecca. There the Umma light campfires. Seeing all the fires in the woods, Abu Sufyan goes up to the prophet and converts to Islam and surrenders the city. Although technically a Muslim,
****** doesn't completely go along with the prophet, in fact later his son and grandson will try and kill the grandsons of the prophet.
Third caliphate, overthrew Ummayads, based in Baghdad,, The dynasty that came after the Umayyads. Devoted their energy to trade, scholorship, and the arts.
Came after the four rightly guided Caliphs. Mu'awiyya rejected Ali., Family that came into power directly after Rightly Guided Caliphs; set up hereditary power system; moved capital to Damascus; cared more about wealth; were invited to dinner by Abbasids and all were killed off except 1 (who fled to Spain and started Al Andalus)
Turks. Great Muslim Empire, the Turkish dynasty that ruled the Ottoman Empire from the 13th century to its dissolution after World War I
the organization of the Qur'an
split into sura (chapters) and aya (verses). The organization is not chronological, but by longest to shortest sura (except Al-Fatiha- the first sura and daily prayer)
the language and status of the Qur'an
Arabic, held in high esteem, sometimes elevated, placed on pedestal with cloth and not touched except special occasions.
the interpretation of the Qur'an
interpreted through itself and the Hadith
the battle of Karbala
- took place in modern-day Iraq. The battle was between supporters and relatives of Muhammad's grandson Husain ibn Ali and the forces of Yazid I (the Umayyad Calif). Husain had refused to recognize Yazid as calif, and so he and his supporters, including his infant son were killed. Those that died are regarded as Martyrs by Shi'ah Muslims
- the omnipotence of God
God's essence and attributes are separate
Good and evil are determined by God
Humans choose to act, but God creates the actions
The word of God in the Qur'an is eternal
THIS IS WHERE THE MAJORITY OF ISLAM IS THEOLOGICALY TODAY!!!
the sacralizations for Salat
1.Spiritual - proper intention (when you say Allahu akbar you enter sacred space)
2.Corporal - ablution (face, forearms, head, feet)
3.Spatial - face Mecca (Mihrab points the way)
4.Temporal - the time of day (dawn, midday, middle of afternoon, sunset, night)
the activities during Hajj
Pilgrims enter holy precincts
•Dress in the ihram
Recitation of the talbiya ("Here I am at Thy service O Lord, here
I am. Here I am at Thy service and Thou hast no partners. Thine alone is All
Praise and All Bounty, and Thine alone is The Sovereignty. Thou hast no partners."
•Circumambulate the Ka'ba (tawaf) seven times
•Touching the (Black Stone)
•Safa and Marwa (walking speedily between them)
•Mina and Arafat (Rite of standing)
•Stoning the devil
•Haircut or shave and final stoning of the devil
Muhammad's life and his call
born 570 AD
mother died when young, raised by Abu Talib
notable for his ability to arbitrate disputes (disputes over kaba in Mecca)
married kadija who was 15 years older and wealthy
first revelation in mount hira, where he had gone to pray. Angel called 3 times for him to "recite" or "read" >> was unlearned. Angel was Gabriel.
initially thought angel was a Gin, but Kadija helped him to affirm that it was from God.
Muhammad's last message
last sermon delivered on the 'Mount of Mercy' on the plains of arafat
Prophets in Islam
- People can't communicate directly with God, so His word has to be given by heavenly messengers to Prophets. "the central function of a prophethood, then, is to provide a means whereby God may address humankind through the channel of human speech".
Attributes: serve as examples in how to live in conformity with God's will. God chooses His prophets based on who he can best communicate through (not necessarily born a prophet) also Prophets are supposed to have "risen above sin" to be sort of infallible >> this concept is referred to as isma
main prophets in Islam: Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus, Muhammad >> referred to as rasul, or bringers of scripture.
the characteristics of Sufism
the progressive institutionalization of Sufism:
First, a personal experience of union with the divine
Second, a communal surrender to the dictates of an order, or tariqa
Tariqa is both an 'order' and a 'path' or 'way' of purification
Third, a surrender to a leader (sheik) or guru, the ta'ifa stage
Sober sufism: Union or life in God achieved through states and stations
Antinomian sufism: Rejection of the letter of Shari'a law
Intoxicated sufism: Characterized by trances and bodily movements
the nature and schools of Shari'a
moral code and religious law; those concerns not addressed directly by Qur'an or Suna are addressed by the interpretations of Islamic Scholars
Hanafi: Most liberal, reason more than Sunna, juristic discretion
Maliki: The legal tradition of Medina
Shafi'i: Hierarchy (Qur'an, Sunna, consensus)
Hanbali: Most conservative, Qur'an and Sunna about equal and literal
the language and status of the Qur'an
- Arabic, held in high esteem, sometimes elevated, placed on pedestal with cloth and not touched except special occasions.
five pillars of Islam
behaviors and obligations that are common to all Muslims, which include the profession of faith, the performance of five daily prayers, the giving of alms, the requirement to fast, and the journey to Mecca, or Hajj
the Purpose: emblems/acts that help bring about remembrance of Allah and other important things (i.e.- fasting reminds us that human beings are dependent on Allah for all things). They are a means to an end, and not the end themselves.
A more spiritually centered branch of Islam that focuses on finding Allah in all things. (the psychedelic, hippie version of Islam, so to speak) , An adherent of _____sm, the form of Islam characterized by a mystical approach to Allah, who is experienced inwardly.
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