Terms in this set (9)
squamous cell carcinoma of anus
HPV types 16,18, and 31 are stingily associated with anal and cervical squamous carcinoma. HIV infection increases the prevalence of HPV infection and the risk of anal carcinoma, this risk is further augmented in men who have sex with men.
Pt-pain, itching, and rectal bleeding in addition to the visible ulcerative mass protruding from the rectum.
if left untreated, N. gonorrhoeae may ascend to cause pelvic inflammatory dz, whc is manifested as endometritis, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscesses, or pelvic peritonitis. Frequently women with gonococcal urethritis will be asymptomatic until PID or peritonitis occurs. the risk of PId is 8-10% if untreated. the most serious complication of PID is permanent damage to the reproductive system resulting in infertility. PID is also associated with other infections such as Chlamydia, as a result the inflammatory response can lead to scarring and blockage of the fallopian tubes whc may lead to infertility if sperm are unable to bypass the bockage.
mucopurulent cervicitis is typical for PID
typically presents with fever greater than 38.3 C, rebound abdominal tenderness, purulent endocervical discharge, and cervical motion and adnexal tenderness on bimanual examination. The two pathogens that cause the vast majority of PID are N. gonorrhoaea and Chlamydia trachomatis. Bc sever PID results in ectopic pregnancy rate approaching 50%, ectopic pregnancy should be ruled out by a pregnancy test.
sm, gram -, obligate intracellular bacterium responsible for the MC sexually transmitted dz in the US. Serotypes A-C cause an ocular infection called trachoma in children. Serotypes D-K cause urogenital sexually transmitted infections and inclusion conjunctivitis, Serotypes L1-L3 cause lymphogranuloma venereum whc is a chronic dz characterized by an initial sm papule on the genital mucosa that contains cell infected with C. trachomatis. This papule is followed wks later by swollen, painful inguinal nodes whc coalesce, ulcerate, and rupture. If left untreated, this condition can cause fibrosis and anogenital strictures. This is endemic in Africa, Asia, Carribbean, and S. America. Histologically, lesion contain mixed granulomatous and neutrophillic inflammation. lymph nodes demonstrate granulomatous inflammation with stellate abscesses of necrosis and neutrophils
Toxic shock syndrome
caused by Staphylococcus aureus strains producing TSST-1, It is called a super antigen bc in contrast to usual antigen, whc activates few helper T cells, it activates large numbers of helper T cells. These toxins interact with MHC on antigen presenting cells and the variable region of the T lymphocyte receptor to cause a nonspecific widespread activation of T lymphocytes. Activation of T cells is responsible for the release of IL-2 from T cells and IL-1 and TNF from macrophages. These interleukins cause capillary leakage, circulatory collapse, hypotension, shock, fever, skin findings, and multi organ failure.
is part of the normal bacterial flora of the intestinal tract. It is also a motile gram - bacillus that is facultatively anaerobic and able to ferment both lactose and glucose. E coli grows well on blood, MacConkey, and eosin methylene blue agar plates. EMB agar is a selective and differential medium used to isolate and identify enteric pathogens from contaminated clinical specimens. On EMB agar, organisms that ferment lactose, such as E. coli, bind to dye in the agar and produce blue-black colonies that have a distinct metallic sheen. Most strains are beta-hemolytic on blood agar.
E. coli is responsible for UTI, neonatal meningitis, and gastroenteritis. Virulence factors are Adhesion, specifically fimbriae whc permit the adhesion of E. coli to uroepithelial cells.
spirochete with gram - cell wall. bc, the organism is so thin, it cannot be visualized with standard gram stain and microscopy. Classically, dark field microscopy of material scraped from the surface of the cutaneous syphilitic lesion must be done. MC, dx of syphilis is confirmed with serologic testing, nontreponemal tests and treponemal test. Non (VDRL and RPR) evaluate for the presence of cardiolipin, a byproduct of treponemal infection, these are best used for screening, sensitivity of 70-99%. May be used to follow dz progression and therapeutic response. Treponemal test (FTA-ABS, MHA-TP) detect specific treponemal antigens and are typically used for confirmation of a positive nontreponemal test or when clinical suspicion remains high despite a negative nontreponemal test. Treponemal test are not affected by antitreponemal therapy and will remain positive for life.
catalase positive, coagulase neg, gram positive cocci in clusters, novobiocin resistant.
Saprophyticus is a common cause of UTI, and is responsible for almost half of all UTIs in sexually active young women. q16 for chart
Protein M is the major virulence factor, it inhibits phagocytosis and the activation of complement. The cell surface of strep progenies is biochemically divers. Lancefield Group A strep are divided into more the 80 serotypes based on M proteins. In addition to they antiphagocytic and anti complement properties, M protein is also cytotoxic for neutrophils in the serum and a mediator of bacterial attachment. M proteins are antigenic and stimulate type-specific immunity