116 terms

HESI Study Guide

Just a little refresher for the HESI Admission Assessment Exam
In Biology, what is the hierarchic system of organization?
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.
For a scientific experiment to be performed, name 3 important steps that must be taken.
1-Hypothesis 2-The experiment must be repeatable
3- Conclusion
What is a water molecule made up of?
2 hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to one oxygen atom.
What is specific heat?
The amount of heat necessary to raise the tempurature of 1 gram of a specific molecule by 1 degree Celsius.
Define Cohesion:
The ability of a molecule to stay bonded or attracted to another molecule of the same substance.
Define Adhesion:
THe ability of water to bond to or attract other molecules or substances.
Name the 4 important Biologic Molecules
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Fatty Acids, Phospholipids and steriods are all ________________.
What are the most important functions of Carbohydrates?
Storage, structure, and energy.
2 types of Fatty Acids are___________ and ______________.
Saturated and Unsaturated
Saturated fats are ________ whereas unsaturated fats are ____________ at room tempurature.
What are phospholipids made up of?
2 fatty acids of varying length bonded to a phosphate group.
Define steriod:
a component of membranes that are precursors to significant hormones.
What is the most significant contributor to cellular function?
Which is the largest of the biological molecules?
What is an enzyme?
A particular type of protiens that act to catalyze different reactions or processes.
Components of the molecules of inheritance are?
Nucleic Acid
What does "DNA" stand for?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
What is DNA?
A molecule specific to a particular organism and contains the code that is necessary for replication.
What is the function of RNA?
It is used tin transfer and as a messenger of the genetic code.
____________ is the sum of all chemical reactions that occure in an organism?
Name 2 types of cells.
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
Cells containing no defined nucleus are called?
Cells tha have a membrane-enclosed nucleus are called?
What does a nucleus consist of?
Chromosomes which contain the DNA of the cell.
Which organelle reads the RNA produced in the nucleus and translates the genetic intructions to produce protiens.
In which 2 locations can Ribosomes be found?
The Endoplamic reticulum (ER) or the cytoplasm.
Ribosomes that are bond are found in the _____________.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Where are "free" ribosomes found?
In cytoplasm.
Name the 2 parts of the ER.
Rough and Smooth
What is the section of the ER that is covered with ribosomes called?
Rough ER
What is the "rough" section of the ER responsible for?
Protien synthesis and membrane production.
What is the function of the smooth ER?
Detoxification and metabolism of multiple molecules.
Which organelle in the cell is responsible for packaging, processing, and shipping?
Golgi Apparatus
What is the functions of the Golgi apparatus?
To transport materials from the ER thoughout the cell.
What takes place in lysosomes?
Intracellular digestion.
How are lysosomes able to hydorlyze proteins, fats, sugars and nucleic acids?
Lysosomes are packed with hydrolytic enzymes.
What is a vacuole?
A membrane enclosed cavity in a cell.
Define phagocytosis:
The ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes
Name the 2 organelles that produce cell engery:
Mitochondria and chloroplast.
Which organelle is found in eukaryotic cells and is also the site of respiration?
In plants what is the function of chloroplasts?
What is the function of the cellular membrane?
Protection, communication, and the passage of substances into an out of the cell.
What does the cell membrane consist of?
A bilayer of phospholipids with proteins, cholesterol, and glycoproteins throughout.
What makes the cell membrane selectively permeable?
The phospholipid bilayer creates a hydrophobic region between the two layer of lipids.
Where does the first step of cellular respiration take place?
In the cystol of the cell.
What is the first step in cellular respiraton?
Glycolysis- the conversion of glucose to pyruvate.
What does the first step of cellular respiration produce?
2 molecules of ATP, 2 molecules fo pyruvate, and 2 molecules of NADH.
What is the second step of cellular respiration?
Pyruvate is transported into a mitochondrion.
In cellular respiration, where does the Kreb cycle take place.
In the matrix of the mitochondria.
What is the third step of cellular respiration?
Begins with the oxidation of the NADH molecules.
In cellular respiration how many ATP's can be produced for every glucose molecule consumed?
32-36 ATP
What are the 2 types of cellular reproduction?
Sexual and Asexual reproduction
What are the 2 forms of asexual reproduction?
binary fission and mitosis.
How do bacterial cells reproduce?
Binary fission
Define binary fission:
Splitting of one parent cell into 2 daughter cells.
Aside from binary fission, what is another form of asexual reproduction?
What are the 5 stages of mitosis?
Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
In which stage of mitosis are the chromosomes visibly separate?
At which stage of mitosis does the nuclear envelope begin to disapper?
What is the metaphase plate?
An imaginary plane perpendicular to the spindle fibers of a dividing cell during metaphase.
What happens during the anphage stage in mitosis?
Chromatids begin to separate and are considered to be separate chromosomes.
What is the final step of mitosis?
What happens during telphose in mitosis?
Chromosomes gather on either side of the spearting cell.
What is the second process associated with cell division that occurs after the 5 stages of mitosis.
What occurs during cytokinesis?
The cell pinches in two, forming 2 separate identical cells.
What is a major difference between sexual and asexual reproduction?
Asexual reproduction results in identical offspring, whereas sexual reproduction result in significantly greater varitions of offspring.
Name the process that determines how reproductive cells divide in sexual reproduction.
What are the 2 stages of Meiosis?
Meiosis 1 and Meiosis 2.
How many daughter cells are produced when Meiosis is complete?
Name the phases in the first stage of meisis?
Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, and Telophase I and Cytokinesis.
Where does the significant difference between meisois (asexual) and mitosis (sexual) occur?
Prophase I-DNA is tranferred between chromosomes, resulting in increased genetic variation.
When does Meiosis 2 begin?
After the first cytokinesis.
All four stages of meisis 2 are identical to _______.
What is an allele?
A alternative form of a gene (1 member of a pair)
How are traits expressedin a sexually reproducing organisms?
Through alleles.
For simple traits, what are the 2 types of alleles.
Dominant and Recessive
If both alleles are the same type of alleles, what is the organism considered to be?
If the alleles are different types, what is the organism considered to be?
What is genetics?
The study of genes.
What is the benefit of a pedigree family tree?
It can trace the occurrence of a certain trait through swveral generations.
What is DNA
The genetic material of a cell and the vehicle of inheritance.
Describe the structure of DNA.
A double helical structure that contains the four nitrogenous bases adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine.
What is the specific bonding pattern of DNA?
Adenine binds with Thymine, and Guanine binds with cytosine.
What is produced through transcription?
An RNA strand, complementary to the original strand of DNA.
What is the difference in the bonding patterns of DNA and RNA?
In RNA, Adenine binds with uracil.
What is anatomy?
The science of bodie structures and the relationships among them.
The careful cutting apart of body structures to study thier relationships
The science of bady functions-how the body parts work
Level of structural orgainization in the human body.
Chemical, Cellular, Tissue, Organ, System, Oranismal.
Study of tissues
Body planes
Imaginary lines used for reference.
A cut made along a plane.
What make up the Integumentary System?
Hair, Skin, Nails, Sweat and Oil glands.
What is the function of the Integumentary System?
Protect, regulate body temp, eliminates some waste, detects sensations, makes vit D.
What does the Skeletal system consist of?
Bones, joints and cartilage.
What is the function of the Skeletal system?
Supports and protects the body, provides a surface area for muscle attachment, houses cells that produce blood cells and it store lipids and minerals.
What are the components of the Muscular System?
Muscles composed of skeletal muscle tissue.
What is the function of the Muscular System?
Produces body movements, such as walking; stabilizes body position (posture); generates heat.
What are the components of the Nervous System?
Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and special sense organs, such as the eyes and ears.
What is the function of the Nervous System?
Generates action potentials (nerve impulses) to regulate body activites; detects changes in the body's internal and external enviornments, interprets the changes, and responds by causing muscular contractions or glandular secretions.
Name the two types of muscle tissue:
Voluntary (skeletal) and Involuntary (smooth and cardiac)
What is mitosis?
Process in which DNA is duplicated and distrubuted evenly to two daughter cells.
Cell division that takes place in the gonads.
How many chromosomes does a human have?
Name the layers of the epidermus from the outer layer to the inner layer.
Stratum Corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum and stratum germinativum.
Name the shapes by which Individual bones can be classified.
Long bone, short bone, flat bone, irregular bone, and sesamoid bone.
How many bones are in the axial skeleton?
Name the only movable bone of the skull.
How many bones in the skull?
28 - 14 facial and 14 cranium
How many bones in teh vertebral column?
33 - 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 1 coccygeal
Name the bones of the arm.
Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Carpals, Metacarpals, phalanges
Name the bones of the leg.
Femur, patella, Tibia, Fibula, Tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
What makes up the nervous system?
Brain, spinal cord and the nerves.
What makes up the CNS?
Brain and spinal cord
What makes up th PNS (peripheral nervous system)?
Nerves and their branches.