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APUSH Chapter 37 - The Eisenhower Era

election of 1952
Adlai E. Stevenson (D) vs. General Dwight D. Eisenhower. (R) with Richard Nixon as VP
Checkers speech
Speech by Nixon that defended himself about using campaign money for personal reasons
July 1953
After Eisenhower threatened to use nuclear weapons, an armistice was signed, ending the Korean War. Despite the Korean War, Korea remained divided at the 38th Parallel.
Joseph R. McCarthy
Republican Senator who made a speech accusing Secretary of State Dean Acheson of knowingly employing 205 Communist party members in February of 1950. Even though the accusations later proved to be false, McCarthy gained the support of the public. With the Republican victory in the election of 1952, his rhetoric became bolder as his accusations of communism grew. (McCarthyism)
Black in the South 1940s
Still governed by the Jim Crow laws. Dealt with an array of separate social arrangements that kept them insulated from whites, economically inferior, and politically powerless.
Gunnar Myrdal
exposed the contradiction between America's professed belief that all men are created equal and its terrible treatment of black citizens in his book An American Dilemma (1944)
Sweatt v. Painter (1950)
Segregated law school in Texas was held to be an illegal violation of civil rights, leading to open enrollment. The Court ruled that separate professional schools for blacks failed to meet the test of equality.
Rosa Parks
December 1955,This woman refused to give up her seat to a white person on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama. Her arrest sparked a yearlong black boycott of the city busses and served notice throughout the South that blacks would no longer submit meekly to the absurdities and indignities of segregation.
"To Secure These Rights"
A report by the President's Committee on Civil Rights, it was given a year after the Committee was formed, and helped pave the way for the civil rights era. It recommended that the government start an anti-lynching campaign and ensure that Blacks got to vote.
Justice Earl Warren
stepped up to confront important social issues-especially civil rights for African Americans.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public schools was unequal and thus unconstitutional. The decision reversed the previous ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson(1896).
"Declaration of Constitutional Principles"
more than a hundred southern congressional representatives and senators signed this in 1956, pledging their unyielding resistance to desegregation
Orval Faubus
September 1957 - the governor of Arkansas mobilized the National Guard to prevent nine black students from enrolling in Little Rock's Central High School. Confronted with a direct challenge to federal authority, Eisenhower sent troops to escort the children to their classes.
Civil Rights Act 1957
Set up a permanent Civil Rights Commission to investigate violations of civil rights and authorized federal injunctions to protect voting rights.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) 1957
Aimed to mobilize the vast power of the black churches on behalf of black rights.
February 1, 1960
4 black college students in Greensboro, North Carolina demanded service at a whites-only lunch counter. Within a week, the sit-in reached 1,000 students, spreading a wave of wade-ins, lie-ins, and pray-ins across the South demanding equal right
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
student-created & led civil right organization that worked for desegregation through sit-ins, freedom rides, & civil disobedience
Operation Wetback
Program which apprehended and returned some one million illegal immigrants to Mexico
Eisenhower and Indians
Wanted to terminate their tribes and assimilate them. They refused to let that happen.
Interstate Highway Act of 1956
$27 billion plan to build forty two thousand miles of sleek, fast motorways
Strategic Air Command
1954 - Proposed by secretary of state John Foster Dulle , An airfleet of bombers armed with nuclear bombs. This would allow President Eisenhower to threaten countries such as the Soviet Union and China with nuclear weapons.
Geneva summit conference in 1955
President Eisenhower attempted to make peace with the new Soviet Union dictator, Nikita Khrushchev, following Stalin's death. Peace negotiations were rejected.
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
West Germany NATO
Let into NATO in 1955
Warsaw Pact
treaty signed in 1955 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania.
Soviets vs. Europe
In May 1955, the Soviets ended the occupation of Austria. In 1956, Hungary rose up against the Soviets attempting to win their independence. When their request for aid from the United States was denied, they were slaughtered by the Soviet forces. America's nuclear weapon was too big of a weapon to use on such a relatively small crisis.
Mohammed Reza Pahlevi
In 1953 he became Shah of Iran with the help of the United State's CIA because of Oil interests
Suez Crisis
July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power
Eisenhower Doctrine
1957 -pledging U.S. military and economic aid to Middle Eastern nations threatened by communist aggression.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
1960 - , An international oil cartel dominated by an Arab majority, joined together to protect themselves.
Election of 1956
Eisenhower (R) vs. Adlai Stevenson (D)
Teamsters Union
an industrial union of truck drivers and chauffeurs and warehouse workers led by "Dave" Beck. Beck was sentenced to prison for embezzlement. When his union replaced him with James R. Hoffa, the AF of L-CIO expelled the Teamsters. Hoffa was later jailed for jury tampering.
Landrum-Griffin Act
1959 - Act that protects the rights of union members from corrupt or discriminatory labor unions; also known as Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (LMRDA)
Labor Reform Act (1959)
protect employees -- grew out of recurrent strikes in important industries and corruption in unions, to protect from the corrupt leaders. JFK later framed a law to protect the rank and file Union members. The Bill served to discipline the Union
National Defense and Education Act (NDEA)
authorized $887 million in loans to needy college students and in grants for the improvement of teaching sciences and languages so we could keep up with Russia's technology
March and October 1958
Soviet Union and the United States, respectively, proclaimed a suspension of nuclear testing. In 1959, Soviet dictator Khrushchev appeared before the U.N. General Assembly and called for complete disarmament. In 1960, an American U-2 spy plane was shot down in Russia, causing feelings of a possibly peaceful resolution to subside
Fidel Castro and Cuba
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba. This caused the the United States to cut off the heavy U.S. imports of Cuban sugar.---Cuba's left-wing dictatorship quickly had the possibility to become a military satellite for the Soviet Union. In August 1960, Congress authorized $500 million to prevent communism from spreading in Latin America.
Election of 1960.
Richard Nixon with Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (R) vs. John F Kennedy with Lyndon B Johnson [Note: the first presidential campaign aired on national television -- JFK looked better]
A series of SOVIET SATELLITES launched in 1957 and in the following years. These were the first artificial satellites.
Alaska and Hawaii
Admitted as states in 1959. The US Flag changed a little but no one really noticed. Before this, they were just US territories.
The invention of the transistor in 1948 sparked a revolution in electronics, especially computers. Computer giant International Business Machines (IBM) grew tremendously.
also grew in the 1950s, thanks to Eisenhower's SAC (Strategic Air Command) and to an expanding passenger airline business.
salaried professional or a person whose job is clerical in nature -- non-manual
member of the working class who performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage
Betty Friedan
Feminist published in 1963 The Feminine Mystique, helping to launch the modern women's movement. This woman spoke to many educated women who supported her indictment of the boredom of a housewife.
evangelical ministers to reach a large nationwide audience.. Baptist Billy Graham, and Oral Roberts, and Roman Catholic Fulton J. Sheen took to the television airwaves to spread Christianity.
Television Stations
1946 - 6 channels. 1956 - 146 channels.
Ernest Hemingway
an American writer of fiction who won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954. authored The Old Man and the Sea (1952)
John Steinbeck
American novelist who wrote "The Grapes of Wrath". (1939) A story of Dustbowl victims who travel to California to look for a better life.
John Heller
wrote Catch-22 (1961), which dealt with the improbably antics and anguish of American airmen in the wartime Mediterranean.
William Faulkner
White United States novelist (originally Falkner) who wrote about people in the southern United States (1897-1962)