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Terms in this set (41)
One of the fundemental componets of nucleic acids
glucose is synthesized from carbon dioxide
an abnormal growth of cells caused by multiple changes in gene expression leading to
dysregulated balance of cell proliferation and cell death and ultimately evolving into a population
of cells that can invade tissues and metastasize to distant sites, causing significant
morbidity and, if untreated, death of the host.
a series of events that takes place in a cell as it grows and divides.
Proteins that form chromosomes within the nucleus
a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes
occurs between prophase 1 and metaphase 1 and is the process where homologous chromosomes pair up with each other and exchange different segments of their genetic material to form recombinant chromosomes
A codon is a sequence of three DNA or RNA nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis
either of the two chains that make up a double helix of DNA, with corresponding positions on the two chains being composed of a pair of complementary bases
one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA which is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached.
which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is lost during DNA replication
indicates that it is a deoxy sugar, meaning that it is derived from the sugar ribose by loss of an oxygen atom
containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent
Are essential during DNA replication because they separate double-stranded DNA into single strands allowing each strand to be copied
are enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA
is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule
a pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis, especially that in the structure of the DNA molecule
A molecule capable of accepting one (or more than one) electrons from another molecule (electron donor), and then ferry these electrons to donate to another during the process of electron transport
Electron Transport Chain
is a series of compounds that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons across a membrane.
flavin adenine dinucleotide is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group, involved in several important reactions in metabolism.
is a genetic mutation caused by a deletion or insertion in a DNA sequence that shifts the way the sequence is read
are the cells used during sexual reproduction to produce a new individual organism or zygote
Guanine is paired with cytosine.
A weak chemical bond that is responsible for the properties of water and many biological molecules
is the normal chromosome complement of germ cells
Is the addition of one or more nucleotide base pairs into a DNA sequence
Kerbs (TCA, citric acid) cycle
a cycle of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in living cells that is the final series of reactions of aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids, and by which carbon dioxide is produced, oxygen is reduced, and ATP is formed
is the process by which the nucleus divides in all sexually reproducing organisms during the production of spores or gametes
The process where a single cell divides resulting in generally two identical cells, each containing the same number of chromosomes and genetic content as that of the original cell.
Are one of the fundamental components of nucleic acids, such as DNA. They may also form nucleosides wherein the nitrogenous base is attached to a sugar.
Nitrogenous bases are of two major types: purines and pyrimidines
are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA
is the process by which a double-stranded DNA molecule is copied to produce two identical DNA molecules
A type of point mutation in which a single nucleotide is substituted with (or exchanged for) a different nucleotide that may result in an altered sequence of amino acid during translation, which may render the newly synthesized protein ineffective
is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA)
is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins
A pyrimidine derivative, it is paired with adenine in double-stranded DNA
uracil binds to adenine via two hydrogen bonds
eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes
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