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World War I

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countries in the Triple Entente
France, England, Russia
countries in the Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria
German ruler
Kaiser Wilhelm Hohenzollern II
Russian ruler
Tsar Nicholas Romanav II
confusing correspondence between cousins (Tsar/Kaiser) misunderstanding each other's intentions
Willy Nicky Letters
Big 4 leaders
Wilson, George, Orlando, Clemenceau
helmet with spike on top, worn by Russian Tsar
pith
Associated Powers
Allies
Central Powers
Axis
Serbian nationalist revolutionary group
Black Hand
member of the Black Hand, shot Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand
Gavrillo Princip
shot by Gavrillo Princip
Francis Ferdinand
where Princip assassinated Austrian Archduke and Francis Ferdinand
Sarajevo, Bosnia
Austrian demand of Serbian government after assassination of Austrian Archduke
Austrian Ultimatum
telegraph of Germany's unconditional support to Austria-Hungary during any war
Blank Check
Eastern Europeans
Slavs
Russia's response to the assassination of Austrian Archduke
mobilization, escalation
declares war first
Germany
beginning of World War I
August 1, 1914
when England joins World War II
August 4, 1914
Germany faced with 2 front war devise this plan to sweep through Neutral Belgium and capture Paris outflanking Maginot line
Von Schlieffen Plan
concentration of French troops on German border/Rhine River
French Maginot Line
England imposes this continental blockade on Europe to strangle Germany
British Naval Blockade
German's response to the British Naval Blockade
German Submarine Blockade
term for waring down the enemy, fighting a war of attrition
"Bleed the Enemy White"
battle, Germany is stopped outside of Paris, Allies victory
Miracle at the Marne
nickname for trench warfare
romance battles
battle of attrition, biggest battle, German offensive, Feb-Aug 1916
Verdun
nickname for Verdun
"The Furnace"
British counter offensive, 1.5 mil killed, 2nd biggest battle, June-Nov 1916
The Somme
1st time tanks are used, 250,000 killed
Paschendale
1st time gas is used, Fall 1914
Ypres
planned by Winston Churchill to outflank the Axis through Turkey (Dardanelles), disaster, slaughter on beaches, Feb 1915
Gallipoli
Vice Lord of Admiralty
Winston Churchill
England defeats Germany, destroys German Navy, Baltic Sea, Jellico vs Scheer, June 1916
Battle of Jutland
English Admiral in the Battle of Jutland
Jellico
German Admiral in the Battle of Jutland
Scheer
poison gas that caused blindness
mustard gas
German military submarine
U-boat
"We have to be Neutral in our Hearts and Minds"
Wilson
US plan to stay out of WWI, Aug 4, 1914
Proclamation of Neutrality
British-American propaganda against Germany
Bryce Report
alleged German atrocity
Rape of Belgium
British passenger ship sunk by German U-boat off coast of Ireland
Lusitania
# of people killed in the Lusitania
1200
# of Americans killed in the Lusitania
200
US response to the Lusitania
Strict Accountability
resigns after the Lusitania
Sec of State Bryan
replaced Sec of State Bryan
Lansing
German pledge to not sink any ships after another British passenger ship sinks (killing 2 Americans)
Arabic Pledge
what did the US decide at the House-Grey Memorandum?
to side with any country who wanted peace
Wilson's closest advisor, sent to issue the House-Grey Memorandum
House
British Foreign Minister, sent to meet House to issue the House-Grey Memorandum
Lord Grey
Wilson's slogan for House-Grey Memorandum
"Peace without Victory"
Democratic candidate in the Election of 1916
Wilson
Progressive Republican candidate in the Election of 1916
Charles Evans Hughes
NY gov, pro-war
Charles Evans Hughes
who wins the Election of 1916?
Wilson
what slogan does Wilson win the Election of 1916 with?
"He kept us out of war"
German pledge to not sink passenger ships without warning after they broke the Arabic Pledge, attempt to keep US out of the war
Sussex Pledge
German's blow up what factory and where?
Black Tom Munitions Plant, NJ
intercepted letter from Germany to Mexico that makes Germans look diabolical and evil
Zimmerman Note
creates Democratic-Socialist Russian govt in March 1917
March Revolution (1st Russian Revolution)
Democratic-Socialist Russian govt that was set up after the 1st Russian Revolution
Provincial Govt
final straw and #1 reason for US entry
German Declaration of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
date, Wilson's war message to Congress
April 2, 1917
date, Formal Declaration of US war
April 6, 1917
early Russian defeats
Tannenburg, Mausurian Lake
a Russian Orthodox Christian/mystic who helped to discredit the tsarist government and may have helped lead to the fall of the Romanov Dynasty
Rasputin
ruled the Provincial Govt
Prince Lvov, Alexander Kerensky
Bolshevik leader
Lenin
Lenin's slogan
Land, Bread, Peace
2nd Russian Revolution
October Revolution
peace treaty between Russia and the Axis Powers expelling Russia from the war, March 3, 1918
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
years of the Russian Civil War
1918-1921
2 examples of the image of Germans
warmongers, drunks
Wilson's Plan to reshape the world and bring about World Peace
Wilson's 14 Points
1916 act to begin preparations for war / increase army
National Defense Act
supervised all agencies and all aspects for preparation for war
Council of National Defense
act that created the US Shipping Board and Emergency Fleet Corp
Merchant Marine Act
The Merchant Marine Act created:
US Shipping Board, Emergency Fleet Corp
act that segregated Black Units
Selective Service Act
act that gave US govt control over US industry, food, fuel, natural resources, manufacturing, prices, economy
Lever Act (Overman Act)
board that converted US industry to wartime production
War Industries Board
Chairman of the War Industries Board who converted US industry to wartime production
Baruch
board that spent $500 mil upgrading US RR transportation
Railroad Administration Board
member of the RR Administration Board who spent $500 mil upgrading US RR transportation
McAdoo
board that regulated use of coal and kept it at a reasonable price during WWI
Fuel Administration Board
member of the Fuel Administration Board who regulated use of coal and kept it at a reasonable price during WWI
Garfield
nickname for Hoover
"The Great Engineer"
board that orchestrates rationing with "Meatless Mondays" "Wheatless Wednesdays", even helps feed millions of starving Russians after war
Food Administration Board
member of the Food Administration Board who orchestrates rationing with "Meatless Mondays" "Wheatless Wednesdays", even helps feed millions of starving Russians after war
Hoover
boards that worked with labor organization to prevent strikes / slowdowns with guaranteed hours and pay raises
War Labor Board, War Labor Policy Board
member of the War Labor Board
Walsh
member of the War Labor Policy Board
Frankfurter
2 examples of US racism against Germans
burned German books, blacklists
board that utilized the media to demonize the enemy
Committee on Public Information
member of the Committee on Public Information that utilized the media to demonize the enemy
Creel
act that set harsh punishments for speaking out against war or govt or spying on the US
Espionage and Sedition Act
total cost of the war
$32 bil
act that raised inheritance, excise and income taxes, paid 1/3 total cost of the war
War Revenue Act 1916
paid for 2/3s cost of war
War Bonds, Liberty Bonds
act that authorized $2 bil short term notes and $5 bil in bonds, $3 bil directly to allies
War Loan Act
how much do the Allies owe the US at the end of the war?
$10 bil
US commander
General John Pershing
division under French command, consisted of 85,000 troops, suffered high casualties in Belleau Woods
Rainbow Division
battle between Germany an the US at a commune in Northern France outside of Paris
Battle at Chateau-Thierry
leads troops at Meuse-Argon Offensive
Gen. John Pershing
ratio of US troops that fought at the Meuse-Argon Offensive
1:8
how many doughboys arrive every day to the Meuse-Argon Offensive
10,000
most decorated soldier of WWI, Meuse-Argon Offensive, movie made about him
Sgt. York
term: agree to stop fighting
armistice
the last defensive perimeter where the US pushed the Germans
Hindenburg Line
1917-1918 winter where Germans were on the verge of starvation
Turnip Winter
ended WWI between Germany and the Allied Powers
Treaty of Versailles
where Treaty of Versailles was signed
Hall of Mirrors
kills 30 mil worldwide, almost 1 million Americans
Influenza Epidemic
years of the Influenza Epidemic
1918-1919
# of people Influenza kills worldwide
30 mil
harsh treaty punished Germany
Treaty of Versailles
what Germany is forced to give up in the Treaty of Versailles
Saar Basin, Alsace, Lorraine
a series of Republican amendments to kill treaty and the League of Nations
Lodge Reservations
Wilson's attempt to counter Republican Lodge Reservations
National Stump Tour
times Treaty of Versailles is voted on in the Senate
3
declares the war over
Congressional Joint Resolution
American soldiers
doughboys
# of US soldiers lost in 9 months
116,000