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countries in the Triple Entente

France, England, Russia

countries in the Triple Alliance

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria

German ruler

Kaiser Wilhelm Hohenzollern II

Russian ruler

Tsar Nicholas Romanav II

confusing correspondence between cousins (Tsar/Kaiser) misunderstanding each other's intentions

Willy Nicky Letters

Big 4 leaders

Wilson, George, Orlando, Clemenceau

helmet with spike on top, worn by Russian Tsar


Associated Powers


Central Powers


Serbian nationalist revolutionary group

Black Hand

member of the Black Hand, shot Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand

Gavrillo Princip

shot by Gavrillo Princip

Francis Ferdinand

where Princip assassinated Austrian Archduke and Francis Ferdinand

Sarajevo, Bosnia

Austrian demand of Serbian government after assassination of Austrian Archduke

Austrian Ultimatum

telegraph of Germany's unconditional support to Austria-Hungary during any war

Blank Check

Eastern Europeans


Russia's response to the assassination of Austrian Archduke

mobilization, escalation

declares war first


beginning of World War I

August 1, 1914

when England joins World War II

August 4, 1914

Germany faced with 2 front war devise this plan to sweep through Neutral Belgium and capture Paris outflanking Maginot line

Von Schlieffen Plan

concentration of French troops on German border/Rhine River

French Maginot Line

England imposes this continental blockade on Europe to strangle Germany

British Naval Blockade

German's response to the British Naval Blockade

German Submarine Blockade

term for waring down the enemy, fighting a war of attrition

"Bleed the Enemy White"

battle, Germany is stopped outside of Paris, Allies victory

Miracle at the Marne

nickname for trench warfare

romance battles

battle of attrition, biggest battle, German offensive, Feb-Aug 1916


nickname for Verdun

"The Furnace"

British counter offensive, 1.5 mil killed, 2nd biggest battle, June-Nov 1916

The Somme

1st time tanks are used, 250,000 killed


1st time gas is used, Fall 1914


planned by Winston Churchill to outflank the Axis through Turkey (Dardanelles), disaster, slaughter on beaches, Feb 1915


Vice Lord of Admiralty

Winston Churchill

England defeats Germany, destroys German Navy, Baltic Sea, Jellico vs Scheer, June 1916

Battle of Jutland

English Admiral in the Battle of Jutland


German Admiral in the Battle of Jutland


poison gas that caused blindness

mustard gas

German military submarine


"We have to be Neutral in our Hearts and Minds"


US plan to stay out of WWI, Aug 4, 1914

Proclamation of Neutrality

British-American propaganda against Germany

Bryce Report

alleged German atrocity

Rape of Belgium

British passenger ship sunk by German U-boat off coast of Ireland


# of people killed in the Lusitania


# of Americans killed in the Lusitania


US response to the Lusitania

Strict Accountability

resigns after the Lusitania

Sec of State Bryan

replaced Sec of State Bryan


German pledge to not sink any ships after another British passenger ship sinks (killing 2 Americans)

Arabic Pledge

what did the US decide at the House-Grey Memorandum?

to side with any country who wanted peace

Wilson's closest advisor, sent to issue the House-Grey Memorandum


British Foreign Minister, sent to meet House to issue the House-Grey Memorandum

Lord Grey

Wilson's slogan for House-Grey Memorandum

"Peace without Victory"

Democratic candidate in the Election of 1916


Progressive Republican candidate in the Election of 1916

Charles Evans Hughes

NY gov, pro-war

Charles Evans Hughes

who wins the Election of 1916?


what slogan does Wilson win the Election of 1916 with?

"He kept us out of war"

German pledge to not sink passenger ships without warning after they broke the Arabic Pledge, attempt to keep US out of the war

Sussex Pledge

German's blow up what factory and where?

Black Tom Munitions Plant, NJ

intercepted letter from Germany to Mexico that makes Germans look diabolical and evil

Zimmerman Note

creates Democratic-Socialist Russian govt in March 1917

March Revolution (1st Russian Revolution)

Democratic-Socialist Russian govt that was set up after the 1st Russian Revolution

Provincial Govt

final straw and #1 reason for US entry

German Declaration of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

date, Wilson's war message to Congress

April 2, 1917

date, Formal Declaration of US war

April 6, 1917

early Russian defeats

Tannenburg, Mausurian Lake

a Russian Orthodox Christian/mystic who helped to discredit the tsarist government and may have helped lead to the fall of the Romanov Dynasty


ruled the Provincial Govt

Prince Lvov, Alexander Kerensky

Bolshevik leader


Lenin's slogan

Land, Bread, Peace

2nd Russian Revolution

October Revolution

peace treaty between Russia and the Axis Powers expelling Russia from the war, March 3, 1918

Treaty of Brest Litovsk

years of the Russian Civil War


2 examples of the image of Germans

warmongers, drunks

Wilson's Plan to reshape the world and bring about World Peace

Wilson's 14 Points

1916 act to begin preparations for war / increase army

National Defense Act

supervised all agencies and all aspects for preparation for war

Council of National Defense

act that created the US Shipping Board and Emergency Fleet Corp

Merchant Marine Act

The Merchant Marine Act created:

US Shipping Board, Emergency Fleet Corp

act that segregated Black Units

Selective Service Act

act that gave US govt control over US industry, food, fuel, natural resources, manufacturing, prices, economy

Lever Act (Overman Act)

board that converted US industry to wartime production

War Industries Board

Chairman of the War Industries Board who converted US industry to wartime production


board that spent $500 mil upgrading US RR transportation

Railroad Administration Board

member of the RR Administration Board who spent $500 mil upgrading US RR transportation


board that regulated use of coal and kept it at a reasonable price during WWI

Fuel Administration Board

member of the Fuel Administration Board who regulated use of coal and kept it at a reasonable price during WWI


nickname for Hoover

"The Great Engineer"

board that orchestrates rationing with "Meatless Mondays" "Wheatless Wednesdays", even helps feed millions of starving Russians after war

Food Administration Board

member of the Food Administration Board who orchestrates rationing with "Meatless Mondays" "Wheatless Wednesdays", even helps feed millions of starving Russians after war


boards that worked with labor organization to prevent strikes / slowdowns with guaranteed hours and pay raises

War Labor Board, War Labor Policy Board

member of the War Labor Board


member of the War Labor Policy Board


2 examples of US racism against Germans

burned German books, blacklists

board that utilized the media to demonize the enemy

Committee on Public Information

member of the Committee on Public Information that utilized the media to demonize the enemy


act that set harsh punishments for speaking out against war or govt or spying on the US

Espionage and Sedition Act

total cost of the war

$32 bil

act that raised inheritance, excise and income taxes, paid 1/3 total cost of the war

War Revenue Act 1916

paid for 2/3s cost of war

War Bonds, Liberty Bonds

act that authorized $2 bil short term notes and $5 bil in bonds, $3 bil directly to allies

War Loan Act

how much do the Allies owe the US at the end of the war?

$10 bil

US commander

General John Pershing

division under French command, consisted of 85,000 troops, suffered high casualties in Belleau Woods

Rainbow Division

battle between Germany an the US at a commune in Northern France outside of Paris

Battle at Chateau-Thierry

leads troops at Meuse-Argon Offensive

Gen. John Pershing

ratio of US troops that fought at the Meuse-Argon Offensive


how many doughboys arrive every day to the Meuse-Argon Offensive


most decorated soldier of WWI, Meuse-Argon Offensive, movie made about him

Sgt. York

term: agree to stop fighting


the last defensive perimeter where the US pushed the Germans

Hindenburg Line

1917-1918 winter where Germans were on the verge of starvation

Turnip Winter

ended WWI between Germany and the Allied Powers

Treaty of Versailles

where Treaty of Versailles was signed

Hall of Mirrors

kills 30 mil worldwide, almost 1 million Americans

Influenza Epidemic

years of the Influenza Epidemic


# of people Influenza kills worldwide

30 mil

harsh treaty punished Germany

Treaty of Versailles

what Germany is forced to give up in the Treaty of Versailles

Saar Basin, Alsace, Lorraine

a series of Republican amendments to kill treaty and the League of Nations

Lodge Reservations

Wilson's attempt to counter Republican Lodge Reservations

National Stump Tour

times Treaty of Versailles is voted on in the Senate


declares the war over

Congressional Joint Resolution

American soldiers


# of US soldiers lost in 9 months


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