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AP Human Geography 01 Geographic Tools
Terms in this set (34)
disadvantages for maps depicting the entire world of the: shape, distance, relative size, and direction of places on maps
Geographic Information System (GIS)
a computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data. Uses geocoding to calculate relationships between objects on a map's significance
Global Positioning System (GPS)
system that accurately determines the precise position of something on Earth, which includes several satellites in predetermined orbits and tracking stations to code the precise location of objects and reach a certain point
North and South Poles
the points farthest north and south on the Earth along its axis
The numbering system to indicate the location of a parallel
a circle draw around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
an imaginary line around the Earth forming the great circle that is equidistant from the north and south poles
the numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the Prime Meridian.
An arc drawn between the North and South poles; A measure of Longitude
0 degrees Longitude
International Date Line
An arc that fro the most part follows 180º longitude, although it deviates in several place to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross it heading east, the clock moves back 24 hours, and when you cross it going west the calendar moves ahead one day.
A two-dimensional or flat-scale model of Earth's surface, or a portion of it
distance on a map relative to the distance on Earth
a map that demonstrates a particular feature or a single variable. Four types: dot, isoline, choropleth, and proportional symbol.
a thematic map in which a dot represents some frequency of the mapped variable
a thematic map in which ranked classes of some variable are depicted with shading patterns or colors for predefined zones.
a thematic map with lines that connect points of equal value.
A special type of map in which the variation in quantity of a factor such as rainfall, population, or crops in a geographic area is indicated; such as a dot map
a map that has been simplified to present a single idea ina diagrammatic way: the base is not normally true to scale.
An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface; depicting what an individual knows about a place -- containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where a place is located
A simplified abstraction of reality, structured to clarify casual relationships; used to explain patterns, make informed decisions, and predict future behaviors
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition model.
A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other.
Von Thunen Model
Model of agricultural land use, an agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activity in terms of rent. Activities that require intensive cultivation and cannot be transported over great distances pay higher rent to be close to the market. Conversely, activities that are more extensive, with goods that are easy to transport, are located farther from the market where rent is less
German sociologist that regarded the development of rational social orders as humanity's greatest achievement. Saw bureaucratization (the process whereby labor is divided into an organized community and individuals acquire a sense of personal identity by finding roles for themselves in large systems) as the driving force in modern society.
Stages of Growth [Rostow]
Five stage economical model of development by a pioneering advocate
Concentric Circle [Burgess]
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district [CBD]
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities
Central Place [Christaller]
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services, larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
an area that uses the same clock time earth is divided into 24 standardtime zones, and they have thier own time zones
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