1)Offers an in-depth perspective (i.e., transference, countertransference) that emphasizes exploring the origins of psychopathology 2)The focus on developmental considerations 3)Most of the models address sexuality (except self psychology, which sees sexuality as a drive derivative—secondary to narcissistic concerns). 4)Freud brought gender issues to the fore with notion of "penis envy". 5) The notion of "repetition compulsion" transcends theory, often drawn by several models as a central concept. 6)Gabbard—Many people do not respond to medications or brief therapy—Some people want to derive deeper meaning about themselves beyond symptom reduction. 7) The notion of "unconscious" begins to explain behavior that we are unaware of. 8) There is biological research that supports some of Freud's claims ("divided brain" studies). 9)The focus on relationship (particularly by object relations) 10)Self psychology understands psychopathology in terms of "dysregulation states", which has been confirmed through neurobiological literature. 11)The universality of defense mechanisms and their use across theories.