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The Albany Plan
A plan that was created when delegates from Pennsylvania, Maryland, New York and New England met in Albany to negotiate a treaty with the Iroquois Indians. During the meeting a proposal by Ben Franklin to set up a "general government" to manage relations with the Iroquois was also approved. The plan was presented to colonial assemblies and none approved it.
Seven Years' War
Known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
White immigrants of French descent. These immigrants owned black slaves on plantations that resided in French territory in North America.
The Iroquois Confederacy
A powerful alliance of Indian tribes that was the only one to remain neutral during the French and Indian War (Seven years' war). The tribe had previously been subject of a peace treaty with the British and were noted as one of three powers of North America. After the Seven Years' War the alliance with the Iroquois and the British diminished and they began contesting each other for power over the Ohio Valey.
Queen Anne's War & The Treaty of Utrecht
A conflict between the French and English which began in 1701 and generated substantial conflicts. The conflict ended with the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, the treaty transferred land including Acadia and Newfoundland from the French to the British.
King George's War
A war that started over disputes between England and Spain. Eventually the colonists were dragged into the battles and fought against the French. The colonists captured the French bastion at Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, but were forced to abandon it at the end of the war with a treaty. At the end of the war relations between the English, French and Iroquois deterioated after the English began trading with the Iroquois. The English began building up forces in North America and the French were fearful that the British were going to make a claim for their lands.
George Washington and Fort Necessity
Washington was sent by the Governor of Virginia to challenge French expansion. Washington built a crude stockade called Fort Necessity near a large outpost called Fort Duquesne that the French were building. The Virginians unsuccessfully attacked the French and were eventually attacked back and defeated. A third of the Virginians died in fighting and Washington surrendered. The fights marked the beginning of the French and Indian War.
A major French outpost at the site of what is now Pittsburgh. Near Fort Duquesne Washington set up Fort Necessity and the war known as the Seven Years' War begun.
The English Secretary of State who oversaw the British actions in the Seven Years' War. He became involved with the second and third phases of the war. During the second phase he angered the colonists by seizing their weapons, forcing them to enlist, and making them quarter British troops. During the third phase Pitt began to make amends with the colonists by reimbursing them for supplies seized, turning over enlistment to colonial authorities and dispatching more troops to the colonies. Under his leadership the British and the colonists won the French and Indian War.
A term used to define the British practice of forcing colonists to enlist in the army during the second phase of the French and Indian War.
Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe
Two British Generals who captured the fortress at Louisbourg and saw Fort Duquesne fall without a fight. Wolfe's forces defeated a larger French army under the command of Marquis de Montcalm during the Battle of Quebec. Quebec fell along with both Marquis and Wolfe. A year after the fall of Quebec the French army surrendered to Amherst in Montreal.
Marquis de Montcalm
The leader of the French forces at Quebec who saw Quebec fall under smaller forces under the command of Gen. Wolfe. Marquis died during the Battle of Quebec.
Battle of Quebec
A battle between Gen. Wolfe and Marquis de Montcalm which occurred at Quebec. Wolfe's forces surprised the larger forces of Marquis and defeated them. Both Wolfe and Marquis died in battle. Quebec fell on September 13, 1759.
Peace of Paris 1763
A treaty between France and England which finally brought peace between the two. The treaty signed in 1763 gave Brittian some former French colonies at the West Indies, most of their territory in India and Canada and all their North American land east of the Mississippi. New Orleans and lands west of the Mississippi went to Spain.
King George III
George ascended the throne in 1760 after England had acquired a large debt during the French and Indian war, and England was unsure in how to collect money from the debt. George removed the coalition of Whigs that had governed the British empire for over a century and replaced it with an unstable coalition of his own. He also suffered from intellectual and psychological limitations. He suffered from a mental disease and when he was ration (most of the time in the 1760s and 1770s) he was immature and insecure. The King's reign contributed to the instability of the British government.
Grenville was appointed by King George III to be prime minister. He had the opinion that the colonists should obey the laws and pay a part of the cost of defending and administering the British empire.
An Indian chieftain of the Ottawa Indians struck at English who began to move across the mountains into tribal lands after the defeat of the French. This led to the Proclamation Act of 1763.
The Proclamation of 1763
This act was the result of Pontiac's attack on English Frontiersmen who were crossing the mountains into Indian territory. The British Govt. passed this act to forbid settlers from advancing beyond the mountains that divided the Atlantic Coast from the interior of North America. This agreement was supported by many Indian tribes but it was largely ineffective, soon White settlers were pushing across the boundary and it was relocated in a 1768 agreement, that was also eventually replaced.
The Mutiny Act of 1765
An act that required colonists to provision and maintain the British Army. This act was the result of Grenville increasing his authority. The act led to ships of the British navy patrolling American waters and an enlarged customs service. It also required Royal officials to take up their colonial positions in person and colonial manufacturing was restricted.
The Sugar Act of 1764
This act raised the duty on sugar while lowering the duty on molasses. It established vice-admiralty courts in America to try smugglers (which cut them off from local sympathetic juries).
The Stamp Act of 1765
This act imposed a tax on every printed document in the colonies, including newspapers, almanacs, wills, deeds and licenses. This act allowed the British to collect more than ten times as much annual revenue in America as they had been before 1763. This act helped to unify the colonies as it effected everyone who lived in any colony and only benefited the English who were making money of the act.
The Paxton Boys
A band of Pennsylvania frontiersman who descended on Philadelphia to demand tax relief and financial support for their defense against Indians. There was no bloodshed because the colonial assembly conceded. This is just one example of how Americans had many grievances against one another.
A colonist who made a dramatic speech to the Virginia House of Burgesses concluding that if George III did not revise his policies he would lose his head. His speech had a set of resolutions that came to be known as the Virginia Resolves.
These resolutions came as a result of Patrick Henry's speech to the Virginia House of Burgesses. The resolutions declared that Americans had the same rights as the English, specifically that they could not be taxed without representations. They stated Virginians should pay no taxes but those voted on by the Virginian assembly and that anyone who advocated the right of Parliament to tax Virginia should be deemed an enemy of the colony. These resolutions were printed and circulated.
A member of the colonial assembly in Massachusetts who called an intercolonial congress to take action against the Stamp Act. In October 1765 the Stamp Act Congress met in New York with delegates from nine colonies and it prepared a petition to the British government that the congress denied that the colonies could rightfully be taxed except through their own provincial assemblies.
Sons of Liberty
A group of men that formed a mob in Boston to terrorize stamp agents and burn stamps. The mob attacked supposed pro-British aristocrats, such as Thomas Hutchinson. Mobs like these were rising in many cities other than Boston.
The lieutenant governor of Massachusetts who was believed to support the Stamp Act but he actually was opposed to it and only supported it once it became law. His house was pillaged and virtually destroyed.
This act confirmed parliamentary authority over the colonies in all cases whatsoever and replaced the very unpopular stamp act. Americans were too excited about the repealing of the Stamp Act to care about this new act.
The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans
This man was a lieading figure in the public outrage over the Boston Massacre. He believed England had become a morass of sin and corruption. He proposed the creation of a committee of correspondence.
Committee of Correspondence
This committee proposed by Sam Adams was used to publicize the grievances against England. It was created in Boston and soon other colonies followed it lead. Soon a loose network of intercolonial political organizations was established that kept the spirit of dissent alive through the 1770s.
A British schooner that was set afire and sank in Rhode Island as an act of rebellion of the colonists. Similar acts of rebellion took place on the Delaware River where a British revenue ship was seized by colonists. Colonists kept the spirit of resistance through writing and talking. Leaflets, pamphlets and books circulated and men gathered in churches, schools, town squares and most prominently in taverns. Taverns and pubs became meeting places for discussions about ideas of resistance.
The Tea Act of 1773
In an effort to save the British East India Company and its large stocks of tea that it could not sell in England, the government passed this act which gave the company the rights to export its merchandise directly to the colonies without paying the taxes that were usually imposed on colonial merchants. The act angered influential colonial merchants and revived passions about no taxation without representation. The law had no new tax but the East India Company was exempt from paying the existing tax. The colonists responded by boycotting tea.
Daughters of Liberty
Unlike earlier protests the tea boycott mobilized large segments of the population. The movement was led by colonial women. The Daughters of Liberty was a women's patriotic organization that committed to agitating against British policies. They proclaimed, "rather than Freedom, we'll part with our tea."
The Boston Tea Party
In the last weeks of 1773 leaders in several colonies had plans to prevent the East India Company from landing its cargoes. In Philadelphia and New York the colonists kept the tea from leaving the company's ships and in Charleston the tea was stored in a public warehouse. In a great showing in Boston three companies of fifty men dressed as Mohawk Indians went aboard three ships, broke the tea chests open and threw them into the harbor.
The Coercive Acts of 1774
These acts included closing the port of Boston, reduced the powers of self-government in Massachusetts, permitted royal officers in America to be tried in other colonies or England, and provided for the quartering of British troops by colonists. Massachusetts became a martyr and new resistance was sparked. Colonial legislatures passed resolve supporting Massachusetts and women's groups mobilized to extend the boycotts of British goods.
First Continental Congress
This Congress was the first of its kind and convened in Philadelphia. All colonies but Georgia were present. They made 5 major decisions. 1. Rejected a plan for colonial union under British 2. Endorses a statement of grievances 3. Approved a series of resolutions recommending that military preparations be made for defense. 4. Agreed to a series of boycotts and formed a "continental association" to see that these agreements were enforced. 5. They agreed to meet again.
The Parliament in London made these in response to the decisions of the First Continental Congress. Parliament proposed the colonies would tax themselves at Parliament's demand. These propositions were made too late and were not seen in America until after fights had begun.
The first battle in the war for independence of the U.S.A. Gen. Thomas Gage of Britain was ordered to arrest rebel leaders in this town. In this town several dozen minutemen were awaiting the 1,000 British and 8 of the colonials were killed and 10 wounded.
One of the first battles in the war for independence of the U.S.A. Gen. Thomas Gage of Britain sent 1,000 men from Boston to go to this town to seize supplies. On the road back to Boston the British were harassed by gunfire.
One of two horsemen that rode from Boston to Lexington in order to warn villages and farms that a British army was advancing. This man was captured.
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