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the process that occurs when contact between 2 cultures results in substantial change in the culture of the individual members of one or both groups


ideas or theories about the natural or supernatural world that are not supported by objectives or factual evidence


Urbanized society with a large very complex social organization; common attributes of civilization include: a) specialized division of labor, b) long distance trade, c) tribute and taxation, d) advances in record keeping, e) science and mathematics, f) some form of written money, g) monumental public architecture


a kinship group based on descent through either males or females. Clan members frequently live and work together and believe they are descendants from a common ancestor.

cultural geography

the study of people and their way of life (human geography)

cultural landscape

the forms and artifacts sequentially placed on the physical landscape by activities of various human occupants

cultural region

an area of land where most people have enough in common to be considered a group

cultural trait

a single element of a normal practice in a culture - such as the wearing of a turban


the total way of life of a group of people, including their beliefs, institutions and technology

culture hearth

a place in which important ideas begin, thereafter spread to surrounding cultures


a practice from the past that people continue to observe


a local variation of a language


the process of accepting, borrowing, and exchanging traits from one society to another; the spacial spreading or dissemination of a culture element


wide variations on features


the slow and day-to-day process of learning your group's culture as an infant and a child

ethnic group

a group of people who share a language, history or place of origin; a large group of people who have more in common with each other than they do with other peoples


regarding one's own culture as being superior to others and judging other cultures from the perspective of your own culture

extended family

a household that includes not only parents and children, but also other relatives, such as grand-parents, uncles, aunts and cousins


traditional social customs

gender roles

the pattern of behaviour expected of males and females in a society


standardized and formalized norms that regulate conduct

material culture

the "object" part of culture; all things that people make or build with natural or human made resources; it includes food, clothing, architecture, arts, crafts, technology, etc.


belief in one God


social norms that provide the moral standards of a group or society, and that are strictly enforced

non-material culture

the "idea" part of culture that includes religion, language, spirtual beliefs, superstitions, values, ways of viewing or behaving in the world


a rule or standard that defines what people should or should not do, think, or feel in an given social situation


the marriage of a person to more than one wife or husband


the belief in many gods


within a single species, a group of living creatures sharing the same appearance or genetic charactistics. The concept of race among humans is more complicated and inlcudes social and cultural, as well as biological assessment


the beliefs and practices of supernatural beings, power and forces


the process by which the accepted values, rules and ways of operating a society are passed on to the young


the attitudes, beliefs, values and behavioral habits shared by a group of people within a society, which differ from those of a society as a whole


the methods, tools and machinery that humans have developed


an idea of what is good, right, wise or beneficial

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