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333 terms

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Chapter 12

STUDY
PLAY
INTERNAL ORGANS
ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, and external genitalia.
EXTERNAL GENITALIA
collectively known as the VULVA or the PUDENDUM. Structures include: labia minora, labia majora, clitoris, Bartholin glands, and mons pubis.
GESTATION
length of time from conception to birth. The human gestational period typically extends approximately 280 days from the last menstrual period. Gestation (pregnancy) of less than 36 weeks is regarded as premature.
LACTATION
the production and secretion of milk by the mammary glands
ORIFICE
mouth; entrance or outlet of any anatomical structure
PUERPERIUM
aka postpartum. Period that begins immediately after birth of the baby and continues for 6 weeks or until the woman's body has nearly returned to a prepregnant state.
OVA
are the female reproductive cells.
OVARIES
OOPHOR/O
OVARI/O
are almond-shaped glands located in the pelvic cavity, one on each side of the uterus.

Oophor/o - ovaries
Ovari/o - ovaries
FALLOPIAN TUBES
SALPHING/O
catch the mature ovum (egg) and transport it to the uterus. Also the site of fertilization.

Salphing/o - fallopian tube
HYSTER/O
METR/O
METRI/O
UTER/O
means uterus
UTERUS
A hollow, inverted pear-shaped muscular organ in the pelvic cavity of the female, in which the embryo is nourished and develops before birth. Normally in a position of ANTEFLEXION (bent forward) and has 3 parts: FUNDUS, BODY, and CERVIX.
VAGINA
VAGIN/O
COLP/O
is a muscular tube lined with mucosa that extends from the cervix to the exterior of the body. Its lining consists of folds of mucous membrane that give the organ an elastic quality. Used for sexual intercourse, acts as channel for menstrual flow, and functions as the birth canal.
Vagin/o, Colp/o - means vagina
PLACENTA
PLACENT/O
exchanges nutrients and waste between the mother and fetus during pregnancy.
Placent/o - placenta
MONS PUBIS
- is a rounded, fleshy prominence located over the pubic symphysis.
- Is an elevation of adipose tissue covered by skin and coarse pubic hair that cushions the pubis (pubic bone).
LABIA MAJORA
LABIA MINORA
Labium (singular)
are the vaginal lips that protect the other external genitalia and the urethral meatus.
CLITORIS
is an organ of sensitive, erectile tissue located anterior to the urethral meatus and the vaginal orifice.
BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS
produce a mucus secretion to lubricate the vagina. These two small, round glands are located on either side of the vaginal orifice.
VAGINAL ORIFICE
is the exterior opening of the vagina. Orifice means opening.
HYMEN
is a mucous membrane that partially covers this opening (vaginal orifice) before a woman has had intercourse. However, this tissue can be absent in a woman who has not been sexually active.
BREASTS
Mamm/o
Mast/o
are made of up of fat, connective tissue, and the mammary glands.
Mamm/o and Mast/o - means breasts
MAMMARY GLANDS
aka LACTIFEROUS GLANDS, are the milk-producing glands that develop during puberty.
LACTIFEROUS GLANDS
aka MILK DUCTS, carry milk from the mammary glands to the nipple.
LACT - means milk
-IFEROUS - means carrying or producing
NIPPLE
breast milk flows through this opening.
AREOLA
is the dark-pigmented circular area that surrounds the nipple.
OVARIES
The female gonads, a pair of almond-sized organs located in the pelvic cavity, that produce the sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone).
FOLLICLE
a fluid-filled sac containing a single ovum (egg).
OVA
OVUM - singular
aka EGGS, , the female gametes. These immature ova are present at birth. Normally, after puberty, one ovum matures and is released each month.
FALLOPIAN TUBES
aka UTERINE TUBES, tubes that extend from the upper end of the uterus to a point near, but not attached to, an ovary.
INFUNDIBULUM
the funnel-shaped opening into the fallopian tube near the ovary.
FIMBRIAE
FIMBRIA - singular
are the fringed, finger-like extensions of this opening. Their role is to catch the mature ovum when it leaves the ovary.
FUNDUS
is the bulging, rounded part above the entrance of the fallopian tubes.
BODY
aka CORPUS, the central or middle part of the uterus.
CERVIX
aka NECK OF THE UTERUS or CERVIX UTERI, is the lower, narrow portion that extends into the vagina. The inferior constricted portion that opens into the vagina.
EPISIOTOMY
surgical incision of the perineum to enlarge the vagina to prevent tearing of the tissue and to facilitate delivery during childbirth.
GRAAFIAN FOLLICLES
each ovary contains thousands of tiny, sac like structures each containing an ovum.
SCROTUM
saclike structure that surrounds, protects, and supports the testicles. Suspended from the pubic arch behind the penis and lies between the thighs.
TESTICLES
aka TESTES, are the two small, egg-shaped glands that produce the sperm (singular - Testis).
SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES
where sperm is produced or formed.
EPIDIDYMIS
is a coiled tube at the upper part of each testicle. From the seminiferous tubules, the sperm move into the epididymis where they become motile and are temporarily stored. Each cord contains a vas deferens plus the the arteries, veins, nerves, and lymphatic vessels required by each testicle.
PENIS
is the male sex organ that transports the sperm into the female vagina.
ERECTION
during sexual stimulation, the erectile tissue fills with blood under high pressure. This causes the swelling, hardness, and stiffness knowns as ERECTION.
PENILE - PEN/I
PHALLIC - PHALL/I
relating to penis.
GLANS PENIS
aka HEAD OF THE PENIS, is the sensitive region located at the tip of the penis.
PREPUCE
FORESKIN, is a retractable double-layered fold of skin and mucous membrane that covers and protects the glans penis.
VAS DEFERENS
aka DUCTUS DEFERENS, are the long, narrow continuations of each epididymis. These structures lead upward, eventually join the urethra.
SEMINAL VESICLES
are glands that secrete a thick, yellow substance to nourish the sperm cells. These glands are located at the base of the urinary bladder and open into the vas deferens as it joins the urethra.
EJACULATORY DUCT
which begins at the vas deferens, passes through the prostate gland, and empties into the urethra. During ejaculation, a reflex action caused by these ducts, semen passes into the urethra, which exits the body via the penis.
SEMEN
is the whitish fluid containing the sperm that is ejaculated through the urethra at the peak of male sexual excitement. EJACULATE means expel suddenly.
PROSTATE GLAND
lies under the bladder and surrounds the end of the urethra in the region where the vas deferens enters the urethra. It secretes a thick, alkaline fluid into the semen that aids the motility of the sperm.
BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS
aka COWPER'S GLANDS, two glands that are located just below the prostate gland. Secretes fluid known as PRE-EJACULATE which helps flush out any residual urine or foreign matter in the urethra. It also lubricates the urethra for sperm to pass through. This fluid can contain sperm and is able to cause pregnancy even if ejaculation does not occur.
URETHRA
serves as both the reproductive and the urinary system.
SPERMATOGENESIS
SPERMAT/O - sperm
-GENESIS - creation
is the process of sperm formation. The ideal temperature for sperm formation is 93.2F. And the scrotum aids in maintaining this temperature by adjusting how closely it holds the testicles to the body.
SPERM
aka SPERMATOZOA, are the male gametes which are formed at the seminiferous tubules of the testicles. When sperm moves, the seminal vesicles and prostate gland add their secretions to form semen.
UROLOGIST
is a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disease and disorders of the urinary system of the females and the genitourinary system of the males.
BALANITIS
is the inflammation of the glans penis that is usually caused by poor hygiene in men who have not had the foreskin removed by circumcision.
PHIMOSIS
narrowing of the opening of the foreskin so it cannot be retracted or pulled back to expose the glans penis.
IMPOTENCE
aka ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION, inability to achieve or maintain an erection. A penis that is not erect is referred to as being FLACCID (limp).
PEYRONIE'S DISEASE
aka PENILE CURVATURE, is a form of sexual dysfunction in which the penis is bent or curved during erection.
PREMATURE EJACULATION
a condition in which the male reaches climax too soon, usually before, or shortly after, penetration of the female.
ANDROPAUSE
ANDR/O - male
-PAUSE - stopping
which is often referred to as MALE MENOPAUSE, is marked by the decrease o f the male hormone testosterone. This change is also referred to as ADAM (ANDROGEN DECLINE in the AGING MALE).
ANORCHISM
AN- without
ORCH/O - testicle
-ISM - abnormal condition
the absence of one or both testicles. This condition can be congenital or caused by trauma or surgery.
CRYPTORCHIDISM
CRYPT/O - hidden
ORCHID/O - testicle
-ISM - abnormal condition
aka UNDESCENDED TESTICLE,, a developmental defect in which one or both of the testicles fail to descend into the normal position in the scrotum.
EPIDIDYMITIS
inflammation of the epididymis that is frequently caused by the spread of infection from the urethra or the bladder.
HYDROCELE
a fluid-filled sac in the scrotum along the spermatic cord leading from the testicles.
PRIAPRISM
is a painful erection that lasts 4 hours or more but is not accompanied by sexual excitement. The condition can be caused by medication or by blood-related diseases such as sickle cell anemia or leukemia.
SPERMATOCELE
a cyst that develops in the epididymis and is filled with a milky fluid containing sperm.
TESTICULAR CANCER
most common cancer in males between ages 15 and 34 years malignant tumor of the testis.
TESTICULAR PAIN
aka ORCHALGIA, is pain in one or both testicles can be due to an unjury, testicular torsion , epididymitis or spermatocele.
TESTICULAR TORSION
is a sharp pain in the scrotum caused by twisting of the vas deferens and blood vessels leading into the testicle. TORSION means twisting.
TESTITIS
aka orchitis, inflammation of one or both testicles.
VARICOCELE
A knot of varicose veins in one side of the scrotum. Varicose veins are abnormally swollen veins.
NORMAL SPERM COUNT
is 20−120 million or more sperm per milliliter (ml) of semen.
AZOOSPERMIA
A - without
ZOO - life
SPERM/O - sperm
-IA - abnormal condition
absence of sperm in the semen.
OLIGOSPERMIA
low sperm count
HEMOSPERMIA
presence of blood in the seminal fluid which can be from infections of the seminal vesicles, prostatitis, urethritis, or urethral strictures.
SPERM ANALYSIS
aka SPERM COUNT, , the testing of freshly ejaculated semen to determine the volume plus the number, shape, size, and motility of the sperm.
TESTICULAR SELF-EXAMINATION
a self-help step in early detection of testicular cancer by detecting lumps, swelling, or changes in the skin of the scrotum
CIRCUMCISION
is the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis. This is usually performed within a few days of birth.
ORCHIDECTOMY
also spelled, ORCHIECTOMY, is the surgical removal of one or both testicles.
ORCHIOPEXY
is endoscopic surgery to move an undescended testicle into its normal position in the scrotum. This is usually performed on infants before the age of 1 year.
VARICOCELECTOMY
VARIC/O means varicose vein
CEL - swelling
-ECTOMY - surgical removal
is the removal of a portion of an enlarged vein to relieve a varicocele.
STERILIZATION
is any procedure rendering an individual (male or female) incapable of reproduction.
CASTRATION
aka BILATERAL ORCHIDECTOMY, , surgical removal or destruction of both testicles.
VASECTOMY
male sterilization procedure that involves removing a section from each vas deferens. This prevents sperm from entering the ejaculate, but does not change the volume of semen.
VASOVASOSTOMY
aka VASECTOMY REVERSAL, is a procedure performed as an attempt to restore fertility to a vasectomized male.
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE (STDs)
aka VENEREAL DISEASES (VD), , infections transmitted by sexual or other genital contact.
OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM
a condition that is a form of conjunctivitis caused by bacteria from chlamydia or gonorrhea (newborns can get from mother during birth). For this reason, all newborns receive one drop of silver nitrate or an antibiotic ointment in each eye immediately after birth to prevent this.
CHLAMYDIA
which is caused by the bacterium CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS, is the most commonly reported STD in the US. It is highly contagious and requires early treatment with antibiotics. In females, it can damage the reproductive organs, where serious complications can cause irreversible damage, including infertility. In males, it can cause urethritis.
BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS
a condition in women in which there is an abnormal overgrowth of certain bacteria in the vagina. This condition can cause complications during pregnancy and an increased risk of HIV infection. Symptoms include a discharge, odor, pain, itching or burning.
GENITAL HERPES
or CONDYLOMAS are caused by HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2. Symptoms include itching or burning before the appearance of lesions (sores). This is a highly contagious even when visible lesions are not present also called VIRAL SHEDDING.
GENITAL WARTS
which are caused by the HUMAN PAPILOMA VIRUS (HPV), are highly contagious. In male, the virus infects the urethra. In female, it infects the external genitalia, cervix, and vagina. It also increases the risk of cervical cancer.
HUMAN PAPILOMA VIRUS VACCINE
is available to prevent the spread of the disease. It is recommended that it be administered to girls between the ages 11 and 12 or before they become sexually active.
GONORRHEA
a highly contagious condition caused by the bacterium NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE. Most common symptom of gonorrhea is a greenish, yellow cervical discharge, inflammation of the urethra (urethritis), painful urination (dysuria). It involves the mucosal surface of the genitourinary tract, and possibly, the rectum and pharynx.
HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)
transmitted through exposure to infected body fluids, particularly through sexual intercourse with an infected partner.
SYPHILIS
caused by the bacterium, spirochete, TREPONEMA PALLIDUM. Highly contagious and is passed from person to person through direct contact with CHANCRE, which is a sore caused by syphillis. This condition can be detected through the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) blood test before the lesions appear. The RPR TEST (Rapid Plasma Reagin) is another blood test for syphillis.
TRICHOMONIASIS
aka TRICH, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS. One of the most common symptoms is thin, frothy, yellow-green, foul-smelling vaginal discharge. Infected men often do not have symptoms, however, when symptoms are present, they include painful urination or a clear discharge from the penis.
TISSUES OF THE UTERUS
It is composed of three major layers of tissues: perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium.
PERIMETRIUM
PERI - surrounding
METRI/O - uterus
-UM - is a singular noun ending
the tough, membranous outer layer of the uterus. MEMBRANOUS means pertaining to a thin layer of tissue.
MYOMETRIUM
is the muscular middle layer.
ENDOMETRIUM
which is the inner layer of the uterus, consists of specialized epithelial mucosa that is rich in blood vessels.
MENSTRUATION
aka MENSES, is the normal periodic discharge of the endometrial lining and unfertilized egg from uterus.
MENARCHE
is the beginning of the menstrual function. This function begins after the maturation that occurs during puberty.
MENSTRUAL CYCLE
consists of 28 days. These are grouped into four phases: Menstrual phase, Postmentrual phase, Ovulatory phase, and Premenstrual phase.
MENSTRUAL PHASE
Days 1 to 5, when the endometrial lining of the uterus sloughed off and discharged through the vagina as the menstrual flow.
POSTMENTRUAL PHASE
days 6 to 12. The pituitary gland secretes FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), causing an ovum to mature. Estrogen, which is secreted by the ovaries, stimulates the lining of the uterus to prepare itself to receive a zygote (fertilized egg).
OVULATORY PHASE
days 13 to 14. On or about, the 13th or 14th day of the cycle ovulation occurs. Ovulation is the release of a mature ovum. The mature egg leaves the ovary and travels slowly down the fallopian tube toward the uterus. During this time, the female is fertile and can become pregnant.
PREMENSTRUAL PHASE
days 15 to 28. If fertilization does not occur, hormone levels change to cause the breakdown of the uterine endometrium and the beginning of a new menstrual cycle.
MENOPAUSE
aka CHANGE OF LIFE or CLIMACTERIC, normal termination of the menstrual function and ovarian activity at about age 50. Menopause is considered to be confirmed when a woman has gone 1 year without having a period. The women experience hot flashes and vaginal drying and thinning (VAGINAL ATROPHY) as estrogen levels fall.
PERIMENOPAUSE
the term used to designate the transition phase between regular menstrual periods and no periods at all. During this phase, which can last as long as 10 years, changes in hormone production can cause symptoms including irregular menstrual cycles, hot flashes, mood swings, and disturbed sleep.
GYNECOLOGIST
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the female reproductive system.
OBSTETRICIAN
a physician who specializes in providing medical care to women during pregnancy, childbirth, and immediately thereafter. This specialty is referred to as obstetrics.
NEONATOLOGIST
physician who in diagnosing and treating disorders of the newborn.
PEDIATRICIAN
a physician who specializes in diagnosing, treating, and preventing disorders and diseases of children.
ANOVULATION
the absence of ovulation when it would be normally expected.
OOPHORITIS
inflammation of an ovary. This condition frequently occurs when salpingtis or pelvic inflammatory disease are present.
OVARIAN CANCER
originates within the cells of the ovaries. These cancer cells can break away from the ovary and spread or metastasize to other tissues and organs within the abdomen or travel through the blood stream to other parts of the body.
OVARIORRHEXIS
OVARI/O - ovary
-RRHEXIS - means rupture
is the rupture of an ovary.
PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE (PID)
a general term for inflammation of the uterus fallopian tubes, ovaries, and adjacent pelvic structures and is usually caused by bacterial infection. Two most common causes of PID are gonorrhea and chlamydia which are STDs and can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and other serious disorders.
POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME
aka STEIN-LEVENTHAL SYNDROME, , a condition caused by a hormonal imbalance in which the ovaries are enlarged by the presence of many cysts formed by incompletely developed follicles.
PYOSALPINX
is an accumulation of pus in the fallopian tube.
SALPINGITIS
is an inflammation of the fallopian tube.
ENDOMETRIOSIS
condition in which patches of endometrial tissue escape the uterus and become attached to other structures in the pelvic cavity. It is a leading cause of infertility. The endometrial tissue develops into what are called IMPLANTS, LESIONS, or GROWTHS.
METRORRHEA
an abnormal discharge, such as mucus or pus, from the uterus.
UTERINE CANCER
involves cancerous growth on the lining of the uterus. One of the earliest symptoms of this cancer that frequently occurs after menopause is abnormal bleeding from the uterus.
UTERINE FIBROIDS
It develops slowly between ages 25 to 40. Some individuals are asymptomatic. When present they include menorrhagia, backache, constipation, and urinary symptoms. Can also cause metrorrhagia and sterility. Should be removed if it causes pain, pressure, menorrhagia or metrorrhagia.
UTERINE FIBROIDS
FIBR/O - fiber, fibrous tissue
-OIDS - resembling
benign uterine tumors composed of muscle and fibrous tissue; also called LEIOMYOMAS (MYOMAS) and FIBROMYOMATA UTERI. Myomectomy or hysterectomy may be indicated if the fibroids grow too large, causing such symptoms as metrorrhagia, pelvic pain, and menorrhagia.
UTERINE PROLAPSE
aka PELVIC FLOOR HERNIA, , condition in which the uterus slides from its normal position in the pelvic cavity and sags into the vagina.
CERVICAL CANCER
second most common cancer in women and usually affects women between ages of 45 to 49. All of the following appear to increase the risk of cervical cancer: coitus at a young age, large number of sex partners, infection with certain sexually transmitted viruses, and frequent intercourse with men whose previous partners had cervical cancer. Routine Pap test can detect cervical cancer.
CERVICAL DYSPLASIA
aka PRECANCEROUS LESIONS, , growth of abnormal cells in the cervix, which can be detected by a Pap smear. Without early detection and treatment, these cells can become malignant.
CERVICITIS
inflammation of the cervix that is usually caused by an infection.
ENDOCERVICITIS
Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the cervix.
COLPORRHEXIS
tearing or laceration of the vaginal wall.
LEUKORRHEA
a profuse, whitish mucus discharge from the uterus and vagina. Women normal have a vaginal discharge; however leukorrhea describes a change and increase in this discharge that can be due to an infection, malignancy, or hormonal changes.
VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS
aka, MONILIASIS, VAGINAL THRUSH, or a YEAST INFECTION, a vaginal infection caused by the yeast-like fungus CANDIDA ALBICANS. Symptoms include burning, itching, and a "cottage-cheese-like" vaginal discharge. Steroid therapy, diabetes, or pregnancy may cause a change in the vaginal environment that disrupts the normal flora and promote overgrowth resulting in YEAST (FUNGAL) infection.
VAGINITIS
aka COLPITIS, is an inflammation of the lining of the vagina. The most common causes of a vaginal inflammation are bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and vaginal candidiasis.
PRURITIS VULVAE
Severe itching of the external female genitalia.
VULVODYNIA
a syndrome of unknown cause that is characterized by chronic burning, pain during sexual intercourse, itching, or stinging irritation of the vulva.
VULVITIS
inflammation of the vulva - possible causes: fungal or bacterial infections, chafing, skin conditions, or allergies to products such as soaps and bubble bath.
FIBROADENOMA
a round, firm, rubbery mass that arises from excess growth of glandular and connective tissue in the breast. These masses, which can grow to the size of a small plum, are benign and usually painless. They often enlarge during pregnancy and shrink during menopause.
FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE
the presence of single or multiple benign cysts in the breasts which occurs more frequently in older women.
GALACTORRHEA
the production of breast milk in a women who is not breastfeeding. This condition is caused by a malfunction of the thyroid or pituitary gland.
MASTALGIA
aka MASTODYNIA, pain in the breast.
MASTITIS
a breast infection that is most frequently caused by bacteria that enter the breast tissue during breastfeeding.
AMENORRHEA
an abnormal absence of menstrual periods for 3 or more months. This is normal only before puberty, during pregnancy, while breastfeeding and after menopause.
HYPERMENORRHEA
aka MENORRHAGIA, , excessive amount of menstrual flow over a period of more than 7 days.
HYPOMENORRHEA
An unusually small amount of menstrual flow during a shortened regular menstrual period.
MENOMETRORRHAGIA
aka INTERMENSTRUAL BLEEDING, excessive uterine bleeding at both the usual time of menstrual periods and at other irregular intervals
OLIGOMENORRHEA
the term used to describe infrequent or very light menstruation in a women with previously normal periods.
POLYMENORRHEA
the occurrence of menstrual cycles more frequently than is normal.
PREMATURE MENOPAUSE
a condition in which the ovaries cease functioning before age 40 years due to disease, a hormonal disorder, or surgical removal.
PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME (PMS)
group of symptoms experienced by some women within the 2 week period before menstruation. These symptoms can include bloating, swelling headaches, mood swings, anxiety, depression, uncontrolled crying spells, water retention, and breast discomfort. The reason most seek help is related to mood change.
PREMENSTRUAL DYSPHORIC DISORDER (PMDD)
a condition associated with severe emotional and physical problems that are closely linked to the menstrual cycle. Symptoms occur regularly in the second half of the cycle and end when menstruation begins or shortly thereafter.
COLPOSCOPY
direct visual examination of the tissues of the cervix and vagina using a binocular magnifier known as COLPOSCOPE.
ENDOMETRIAL BIOPSY
a small amount of the tissue from the lining of the uterus is removed for microscopic examination. This test is most often used to determine the cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding.
ENDOVAGINAL ULTRASOUND
performed to determine the cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding. This test is performed by placing an ultrasound transducer in the vagina so that the sound waves can create images of the uterus and ovaries.
HYSTEROSALPINGOGRAPHY
a radiographic examination of the uterus and uterine tubes (oviducts) following an injection of a contrast medium. This test requires the instillation of radiopaque contrast material into the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes to make them visible. It is used to determine pathology in the uterine cavity,evaluate tubal patency, and determine the cause of infertility.
HYSTEROSCOPY
the direct visual examination of the interior of the uterus and fallopian tubes. This examination is performed by using the magnification of a HYSTEROSCOPE.
PAPANICOLAOU TEST
aka PAP SMEAR, an exfoliative biopsy for the detection of conditions that can be early indicators of cervical cancer. EXFOLIATIVE means that cells are scraped from the tissue and examined under a microscope.
CONTRACEPTIVE
is a measure taken, or a device used, to lessen the likelihood of conception and pregnancy. BIRTH CONTROL PILLS are a form of hormones that are administered as a contraceptive.
INTRAUTERINE DEVICE
a molded plastic contraceptive inserted through the cervix into the uterus. Plastic or metal object placed inside the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterine lining.
HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY
the use of the female hormones estrogen and progestin to replace those the body no longer produces during and after perimenopause. PROGESTIN is a synthetic form of the female hormone progesterone.
OVARIECTOMY
aka OOPHORECTOMY, is the surgical removal of one or both ovaries. If both ovaries are removed in a premenopausal woman, the patient experiences SURGICAL MENOPAUSE.
SALPINGECTOMY
surgical removal of one or both Fallopian tubes.
SALPINGO-OOPHORECTOMY
Surgical removal of the fallopian tube and ovary. A BILATERAL SALPINGO-OOPHORECTOMY is the removal of both the fallopian tubes and ovaries.
TUBAL LIGATION
a surgical sterilization procedure in which the fallopian tubes are sealed or cut to prevent sperm from reaching a mature ovum.
COLPOPEXY
aka VAGINOFIXATION, , the surgical fixation of a prolapsed vagina to a surrounding structure such as the abdominal wall.
CONIZATION
aka CONE BIOPSY, , the surgical removal of a cone-shaped specimen of tissue from the cervix. This is performed as a diagnostic procedure or to remove abnormal tissue.
COLPORRHAPHY
surgical suturing of a tear in the vagina.
DILATION AND CURETTAGE (D&C)
is a surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated and the endometrium of the uterus is scraped away with the use of an instrument known as CURETTE. This can be performed as a diagnostic or a treatment procedure.
MYOMECTOMY
the surgical removal of uterine fibroids.
HYSTERECTOMY
HYSTER/O - uterus
-ECTOMY - excision, removal
surgical removal of the uterus. This procedure eis further described depending upon the structures that are removed.
TOTAL HYSTERECTOMY
aka COMPLETE HYSTERECTOMY, the surgical removal of the uterus and the cervix but the ovaries and fallopian tubes remain. This can be performed through the vagina or laparoscopically through the abdomen.
PARTIAL or SUBTOTAL HYSTERECTOMY
the uterus is removed and the cervix, ovaries, and fallopian tube is left in place.
RADICAL HYSTERECTOMY
aka BILATERAL HYSTEROSALPINGO-OOPHORECTOMY, is most commonly performed to treat uterine cancer. This procedure includes the surgical removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes, the uterus and cervix, plus nearby lymph nodes.
MAMMOPLASTY
also spelled MAMMAPLASTY, a general term for a cosmetic operation on the breasts. A surgical reconstruction of the breast(s) to change the size, shape, or position.
BREAST AUGMENTATION
mammoplasty performed to increase breast size or to replace one that has been removed. This is performed by inserting a breast prosthesis beneath the skin or beneath the pectorals major muscle.
BREAST REDUCTION
mammoplasty performed to decrease and reshape excessively large, heavy breasts. Procedure performed in conduction with mastopexy, a surgery to uplift sagging breast.
MASTOPEXY
mammoplasty to affix sagging breasts in a more elevated position.
OVULATION
the release of a mature egg from a follicle on the surface of the ovary.
CORPUS LUTEUM
a yellow fatty substance that secretes the hormone progesterone during the second half of the menstrual cycle. This maintains the growth of the uterine lining in preparation for the fertilized egg.
COITUS
aka COPULATION or SEXUAL INTERCOURSE, the male ejaculates approximately 100 million sperm into the female's vagina.
CONCEPTION
occurs when a sperm penetrates and fertilizes the descending ovum. This union, which is the beginning of a new life, forms a single cell known as a ZYGOTE.
IMPLANTATION
is the embedding of the zygote into the lining of the uterus.
EMBRYO
The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month. From implantation through the 8th week of pregnancy, the developing child is known as EMBRYO.
FETUS
a developing human from the ninth week of development until birth.
FRATERNAL TWINS
result from the fertilization of separate ova by separate sperm cells. These develop into two separate embryos.
IDENTICAL TWINS
are formed by the fertilization of a single egg cell by a single sperm that divides to form two embryos. Each twins receives exactly the same genetic information from the parents.
MULTIPLES
is used to describe a birth involving more than two infants.
CHORION
the thin outer membrane that encloses the embryo. It contributes to the formation of the placenta.
PLACENTA
a temporary organ that forms within the uterus to allow the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the mother and fetus without allowing maternal blood and fetal blood to mix.
AFTERBIRTH
after delivery of the newborn, the placenta is expelled.
AMNIOTIC SAC
aka AMNION, , the innermost membrane that surrounds the embryo in the uterus. The common name for this structure is the BAG OF WATERS.
AMNIOTIC CAVITY
the fluid-filled space between the embryo and the amniotic sac.
AMNIONIC FLUID
aka AMNIOTIC FLUID, , liquid that protects the fetus and makes possible its floating movements.
UMBILICAL CORD
the tube that carries blood, oxygen, and nutrients from the placenta to the developing child.
NAVEL
aka BELLY BUTTON, is formed after birth where the umbilical cord was attached to the fetus.
GESTATION
which lasts approximately 280 days, is the period of development of the child in the mother's uterus. Upon completion of this developmental time, the fetus is described as being AT TERM and should be ready for birth.
PREGNANCY
which is often used interchangeably with GESTATION, means the condition of having a developing child in the uterus. The length of pregnancy is described according to the number of weeks of gestation (usually 40 weeks total). For descriptive purposes, pregnancy can also be divided into three trimesters of about 13 weeks each.
DUE DATE
or ESTIMATED DATE OF CONFINEMENT, is calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP). CONFINEMENT is an old-fashioned term describing the period of rest for the mother that followed childbirth.
QUICKENING
is the first movement of the fetus in the uterus that can be felt by the mother. This usually occurs during the 16th to 20th week of pregnancy.
BRAXTON HICKS CONTRACTIONS
intermittent painless uterine contractions that occur with increasing frequency as the pregnancy progresses. These are not true labor pains and are usually infrequent, irregular, and essentially painless.
VIABLE
capable of living outside the uterus depends on the developmental age, birth weight, and developmental stage of the lungs of the fetus.
ANTEPARTUM
refers to the final state of pregnancy just before the onset of labor.
NULLIGRAVIDA
NULLI - means none
-GRAVIDA - pregnant
a woman who has never been pregnant.
NULLIPARA
NULLI - means none
-PARA - means to bring forth
woman who has never borne a viable child.
PRIMIGRAVIDA
PRIMI - means first
-GRAVIDA - means pregnant.
woman during her first pregnancy.
PRIMIPARA
PRIMI - means first
-PARA - means to bring forth
woman who has borne one viable child.
MULTIPAROUS
MULTI - means many
-PAROUS - means having borne one or more children.
means a woman who has given birth two or more times.
LABOR AND DELIVERY (L&D)
aka CHILDBIRTH or PARTURITION, occurs in three stages. These are dilation, delivery of the baby, and expulsion of the afterbirth.
THE FIRST STAGE
STAGE OF DILATION
during the first, and longest, stage of labor, the changes that occur include the gradual dilatation and effacement of the cervix and the rupture of the amniotic sac.
EFFACEMENT
is the process by which the cervix prepares for delivery as it gradually softens, shortens, and becomes thinner.
FETAL MONITORING
is the use of an electronic device to record the fetal heart rate and the maternal uterine contractions during labor.
THE SECOND STAGE
STAGE OF EXPULSION
is the delivery of the infant. As the uterine contractions become stronger and more frequent, the mother pushes to help expel the child through the birth canal.
BIRTH CANAL
vagina. Normally the baby's head presents first.
CROWNING
when the head of the baby is visible through vaginal canal.
THE THIRD STAGE
PLACENTAL STAGE or AFTERBIRTH
is the expulsion of the placenta as the AFTERBIRTH.
POSTPARTUM
means after childbirth.
PUERPERIUM
the time from the delivery of the placenta through approximately the first 6 weeks after the delivery.
LOCHIA
LOCH - means childbirth
-IA - means pertaining to
the postpartum vaginal discharge that typically continues for 4-6 weeks after childbirth.
UTERINE INVOLUTION
the return of the uterus to its normal size and former condition after delivery.
COLOSTRUM
a specialized form of milk that delivers essential nutrients and antibodies in a form that the newborn can digest.
LACTATION
the process of forming and secreting milk from the breasts as nourishment for the infant.
POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION
a mood disorder characterized by feelings of sadness and the loss of pleasure in normal activities that can occur shortly after giving birth.
NEONATE
the newborn infant during the first 4 weeks after birth; as soon as the baby takes its first breath.
VERNIX
greasy substance that protects the fetus in utero and can still be present at birth.
MECONIUM
the greenish material that collects in the intestine of a fetus and forms the first stools of a newborn.
APGAR SCORE
a scale of 1-10 to evaluate a newborn infant's physical status at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. The newborn is evaluated by assessing numerical values (0-2) to each of five criteria: 1) Heart Rate, 2) Respiratory Effort, 3) Muscle Tone, 4) Response Stimulation, and 5) skin color. A score of 8 − 10 indicates the best possible condition.
ABORTION
the interruption or termination of pregnancy before the fetus is viable.
SPONTANEOUS ABORTION
aka MISCARRIAGE, usually occurs early in the pregnancy and is due to an abnormality or genetic disorder.
INDUCED ABORTION
caused by human intervention - achieved thru the use of drugs or suctioning.
THERAPEUTIC ABORTION
abortion done for medical purposes.
ECTOPIC PREGNANCY
aka EXTRAUTERINE PREGNANCY, , a potentially dangerous condition in which a fertilized egg is implanted and begins to develop outside of the uterus. ECTOPIC means out of place.
PREECLAMPSIA
aka PREGNANCY-INDUCED HYPERTENSION or TOXEMIA, , a complication of pregnancy characterized by hypertension (high blood pressure), edema (swelling), and proteinuria (an abnormally high level of protein in the urine).
ECLAMPSIA
which is a more serious form of preeclampsia, is characterized by convulsions and sometimes coma. Signs of eclampsia include high blood pressure, edema, convulsions, renal dysfunction, proteinuria, and in severe cases, coma. Treatment for this condition is delivery of the fetus.
ABRUPTIO PLACENTAE
abnormal disorder in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall before the birth of the fetus.
BREECH PRESENTATION
one in which the buttocks or feet of the fetus are positioned to enter the birth canal first instead of the head.
PLACENTA PREVIA
abnormal implantation of the placenta in the lower portion of the uterus. PREVIA means appearing before or in front of. Symptoms include painless, sudden-onset bleeding during the third trimester.
PREMATURE INFANT
aka PREEMIE, a fetus born before the 37th week of gestation.
STILLBIRTH
is the birth of a fetus that died before, or during, the delivery.
PREGNANCY TEST
performed to detect an unusually high level of the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone in either a blood or urine specimen, which is usually an indication of pregnancy. A "home pregnancy test" uses a urine specimen. A pregnancy test based on a blood specimen usually provides more reliable results.
FIRST TRIMESTER SCREENING
aka COMBINED SCREENING, is performed beween 11 and 13 weeks of pregnancy and involves an ultrasound and a finger-stick blood test. The combined results of these two measurements, plus the mother's age, detect most of the fetuses at risk for Down Syndrome. Diagnostic tests such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, are recommended for those at increased risk for this condition.
CHORIONIC VILLUS SAMPLING
is the examination of cells retrieved from the choronic villi, which are minute, vascular projections on the chorion. Performed on 8th to 10th weeks of pregnancy.
AMNIOCENTESIS
a surgical puncture with a needle to obtain a specimen of amniotic fluid. This is obtained during the 14th week of pregnancy. Used to evaluate fetal health and to diagnose certain congenital disorders.
PELVIMETRY
a radiographic study to measure the dimentions of the pelvis to evaluate its capacity to allow passage of the fetus through the birth canal.
CESAREAN SECTION
aka C-SECTION, , The delivery of the child through an incision in the maternal abdominal and uterine walls. It is most commonly used in the event of cephalopelvic disproportion, presence of sexually transmitted disease, fetal distress, and breech presentation.
VBAC
is the acronym to describe VAGINAL BIRTH AFTER A CESAREAN.
EPISIOTOMY
EPISI/O - vulva
-OTOMY - surgical incision
a surgical incision made through the perineum to enlarge the vaginal orifice to prevent tearing of the tissues as the infant moves out of the birth canal.
EPISIORRHAPHY
EPISI/O - vulva
-RRHAPHY - means surgical suturing
surgical suturing to repair an episiotomy or a lacerated vulva.
INFERTILITY
the inability of a couple to achieve pregnancy after 1 year of regular, unprotected intercourse, or the inability of a woman to carry a pregnancy to a live birth.
INFERTILITY SPECIALIST
aka FERTILITY SPECIALIST, who diagnoses and treats problems associated with conception and maintaining pregnancy.
AB, Ab, ab
AMA
AI
ART
AMN
BSE
BV
CA
AB - Abortion; antibody
AMA - advance maternal age
AI - artificial insemination
ART - assisted reproductive technology
AMN - amniocentesis
BSE - breast self-examination
BV - bacterial vaginosis
CA - cancer; chronological âge; cardiac arrest
CIRC, circum
CPD
CS, C-section
CVS
CWP
DRE
D&C
DUB
CIRC, circum - circumcision
CPD - cephalopelvic disproportion
CS - cesarean section
CVS - chorionic villus sampling
CWP - childbirth without pain
DRE - digital rectal examination
D&C - dilation (dilatation) and curettage
DUB - dysfunctional uterine bleeding
ED
FSH
FECG, FEKG
FHR
FHT
FTND
G
GC
ED - erectile dysfunction
FSH - follicle-stimulating hormone
FECG - fetal electrocardiogram
FHR - fetal heart rate
FHT - fetal heart tone
FTND - full-term normal delivery
G - gravida (pregnant)
GC - gonococcus (Neiseirria Gonorrhea)
GYN
HRT
HPV
HSG
HSV
HYS
IUD
IVF
GYN - gynecology
HRT - hormone replacement therapy
HPV - human papiloma virus
HSG - hysterosalpingography
HSV - herpes simplex virus
HYS - hysteroscopy
IUD - intrauterine device
IVF - in vitro fertilization
IUGR
IVF-ET
LBW
L&D
LSO
LH
LMP
IUGR - intrauterine growth rate; intrauterine growth retardation
IVF-ET - in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer
LBW - low birth weight
L&D - labor and delivery
LSO - left salpingo-oophorectomy
LH - Luteinizing Hormone
LMP - last menstrual period
NB
OB
OCPs
para 1,2,3 and so on
PID
Pap
PMP
PMS
NB - newborn
OB - obstetrics
OCPs - oral contraceptive pills
para 1, 2, 3 - unipara, bipara, tripara (number of viable births)
PID - pelvic inflammatory disease
Pap - Papanicolaou (test)
PMP - previous menstrual period
PMS - premenstrual syndrome
RSO
STD
TAH
TRAM
Trich
TVH
UC
VD
RSO - right salpingo-oophorectomy
STD - sexually transmitted disease
TAH - Total abdominal hysterectomy
TRAM - transverse rectus abdominis muscle
Trich - Trichomoniasis
TVH - total vaginal hysterectomy
UC - uterine contractions
VD - venereal disease
AMNI/O
CERVIC/O
COLP/O
VAGIN/O
GALACT/O
LACT/O
AMNI/O - amnion (amniotic sac)
CERVIC/O - neck; cervix uteri (neck of the uterus)
cervicitis - inflammation of the cervix
COLP/O - vagina
VAGIN/O - vagina
GALACT/O - milk
LACT/O - milk
GYNEC/O
HYSTER/O
METRI/O
UTER/O
MAMM/O
MAST/O
MEN/O
GYNEC/O - woman, female
HYSTER/O - uterus (womb)
METRI/O - uterus (womb)
UTER/O - uterus (womb)
MAMM/O - breast
MAST/O - breast
MEN/O - menses; menstruation
METR/O
NAT/O
OOPHOR/O
OVARI/O
PERINE/O
SALPING/O
METR/O - uterus (womb); measure
NAT/O - birth
OOPHOR/O - ovary
OVARI/O - ovary
PERINE/O - perineum
SALPING/O - tube (usually fallopian or eustachian (auditory tubes)
-ARCHE
-CYESIS
-GRAVIDA
-PARA
-SALPINX
-TOCIA
-VERSION
-ARCHE - beginning
-CYESIS - pregnancy
-GRAVIDA - pregnant woman
-PARA - to bear (offspring)
-SALPINX - tube (usually fallopian or eustachian tubes)
-TOCIA - childbirth, labor
-VERSION - turning
ANTE
DYS
ENDO
MULTI
POST
PRIMI
ANTE - before, in front of
DYS - bad; painful; difficult
ENDO - in, within
MULTI - many, much
POST - after
PRIMI - first
ADNEXA
accessory parts of a structure. Adnexa uteri are the ovaries and fallopian tubes
ATRESIA
congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening, such as the vagina.
CHORIOCARCINOMA
malignant neoplasm of the uterus or at the site of an ectopic pregnancy. Although actual cause is unknown, choriocarcinoma is a rare tumor that may occur after pregnancy or abortion.
CONTRACEPTIVE DIAPHRAGM
contraceptive device consisting of a hemisphere of thin rubber bonded to a flexible ring; inserted into the vagina together with spermicidal jelly or cream up to 2 hours before coitus so that spermatozoa can't enter the uterus, thus preventing conception.
CORPUS LUTEUM
ovarian scar tissue that results from rupturing of a follicle during ovulation and becomes a small yellow body that produces progesterone after ovulation.
DYSPAREUNIA
occurrence of pain during sexual intercourse.
ENDOCERVICITIS
inflammation of the mucous (inner) lining of the cervix uteri.
INFERTILITY
inability or diminished ability to produce offspring
HORMONAL CONTRACEPTION
use of hormones to suppress ovulation and prevent conception.
ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE PILLS (OCPs)
Birth control pills containing estrogen and progesterone in varying proportions. When taken according to schedule, oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are about 98% effective.
MENARCHE
beginning of menstrual function.
OLIGOMENORRHEA
scanty or infrequent menstrual flow.
PERINEUM
region between the vulva and anus that constitutes the pelvic floor.
PUBERTY
period during which secondary sex characteristics begin to develop and the capability of sexual reproduction is attained.
PYOSALPINX
pus in the fallopian tube
RETROVERSION
turning or state of being turned back, especially an entire organ, such as the uterus, being tipped from its normal position.
STERILITY
inability of the female to become pregnant or the male to impregnate the female.
VAGINISMUS
painful spasm of the vagina from contraction of its surrounding muscles.
VIABLE
capable of sustaining life denotes a fetus sufficiently developed to live outside of the uterus. A viable infant is one who at birth weighs at least 500 g or is 24 weeks or more of gestational age. Because an infant is determined viable does not mean the baby is born alive.
ABORTION
termination of pregnancy before the embryo or fetus is capable of surveying outside the uterus.
ABRUPTIO PLACENTAE
premature separation of a normally situated placenta.
AMNION
membrane, continuous with and covering the fetal side of the placenta, that forms the outer surface of the umbilical cord. The fetus is suspended in amniotic fluid.
BREECH PRESENTATION
common abnormality of delivery in which the fetal buttocks or feet present first rather than the head.
DOWN SYNDROME, TRISOMY 21
congenital condition characterized by physical malformations and some degree of mental retardation. Trisomy 21 is the occurrence of three copies of chromosome 21 rather than two copies and occurs in about 1 of 700 live births. The terms Down Syndrome and Trisomy 21 are preferred to the term MONGOLISM.
DYSTOCIA
difficult, labor, which may be produced by the large size of the fetus or the small size of the pelvic outlet.
ECTOPIC PREGNANCY
pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum does not reach the uterine cavity but becomes implanted on any tissue other than the lining of the uterine cavity, such as a fallopian tube, an ovary, the abdomen, or even the cervix uteri. Kinds of ectopic : abdominal pregnancy, ovarian pregnancy, and tubal pregnancy.
GRAVIDA
pregnant woman. The term gravida may be followed by numbers, indicating number of pregnancies, such as gravid 1, 2, 3, 4, or I, II, III, IV and so forth.
MULTIGRAVIDA
woman who has been pregnant more than once.
MULTIPARA
woman who has delivered more than one viable infant
PARA
woman who has given birth to one or more viable infants.
PARTURITION
process of giving birth.
PELVIMETRY
measurement of pelvic dimensions to determine whether the head of the fetus will be able to pass through the bony pelvis during the delivery process. Measurement of the pelvis is usually determine by ultrasound during the early part of pregnancy. X-ray pelvimetry may be performed late in the pregnancy or during labor if more precise measurements are needed.
PLACENTA PREVIA
condition in which the placenta is attached near the cervix and ruptures prematurely, with spotting as the early symptom.
PRIMIGRAVIDA
woman pregnant for the first time.
PRIMIPARA
woman who has given birth to one viable infant, her first child, indicated by the notation para I on the patient's chart.
PUERPERIUM
period of 42 days after childbirth and expulsion of the placenta and membranes, during which the reproductive organs usually return to normal.
AMNIOCENTESIS
Transabdominal puncture of the amniotic sac under ultrasound guidance using a needle and syringe to remove amniotic fluid. The sample obtained in amniocentesis is chemically and cytologically studied to detect genetic and biochemical disorders and fetal maturity. The procedure also enables transfusion of platelets or blood to the fetus and instillation of drugs for treating the fetus.
INSUFFLATION
delivery of pressurized air or gas into a cavity, chamber, or organ to allow visual examination, remove an obstruction, or apply medication. Insufflation is performed to increase the distance between structures so the physician can see more clearly and better diagnose possible disorders.
TUBAL INSUFFLATION
test for potency of the uterine tubes made by transuterine insufflation with carbon dioxide; also called RUBIN TEST.
COLPOSCOPY
visual examination of the vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying instrument (colposcope). It is used chiefly to identify areas of cervical dysplasia in women with abnormal Papanicolaou Tests and as an aid in biopsy or excision procedures, including cautery, cryotherapy, and loop electrosurgical excision.
LAPAROSCOPY
visual examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall, usually at the umbilicus. It has become a standard technique for many routine surgical procedures, including gynecological sterilization by fulguration of the oviducts and tubal ligation.
CHORIONIC VILLUS SAMPLING (CVS)
sampling of placental tissues for prenatal diagnosis of potential genetic defects. In CVS, the sample is obtained through a catheter inserted into the uterus. The advantage of CVS over amniocentesis is that it can be undertaken in the first trimester of pregnancy.
ENDOMETRIAL BIOPSY
removal of a sample of uterine endometrium for microscopic study. Endometrial biopsy is commonly used in fertility assessment to confirm ovulation and as a diagnostic tool to determine the cause of dysfunctional and postmenopausal bleeding.
PAPANICOLAOU TEST (PAP)
cytological study used to detect abnormal cells sloughed from the cervix and vagina, usually obtained during routine pelvic examination. A PAP test is commonly used to screen for and diagnose cervical cancer. It may also be used to evaluate cells from an organ, such as the pleura and peritoneum, to detect changes that indicate malignancy.
MAMMOGRAPHY
a radiographic examination of the breasts to detect the presence of tumors or precancerous cells. It is used to detect tumors, cysts, andmicrocalcifications and may help locate a malignant lesion.
ULTRASONOGRAPHY (US)
process by which high frequency sound waves (ultrasound) produce and display an image from reflected "echoes" on a monitor; also called ULTRASOUND, SONOGRAPHY and ECHO.
PELVIC ULTRASONOGRAPHY
US of the pelvic region used to evaluate abnormalities in the female reproductive system as well as the fetus in the obstetric patient.
TRANSVAGINAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY
TRANS - through, across
VAGIN/O - vagina
-AL - pertaining to
US of the pelvic area performed with a probe inserted into the vagina, which provides charger images of pathological and normal structures within the pelvis.
BREAST IMPLANT REVISION
surgery designed to correct an unsuccessful procedure that has created a cosmetic problem or poses a health risk. Used commonly to replace older silicone implants with new saline-filled implants.
CERCLAGE
suturing the cervix to prevent it from dilating prematurely during pregnancy, thus decreasing the chance of a spontaneous abortion. The sutures are removed prior to delivery. Sometimes referred to as PURSE-STRING procedure.
COLPOCLEISIS
COLP/O - vagina
-CLEISIS - closure
surgical closure of the vaginal canal
CORDOCENTESIS
sampling of fetal blood drawn from the umbilical vein and performed under ultrasound guidance to identify hemolytic diseases or genetic abnormalities.
CRYOSURGERY
process of freezing tissue to destroy cells called CRYOCAUTERY. It is used for chronic cervical infections and erosions because offending organisms may be entrenched in cervical cells and glands. The process destroys these infected areas and, in the healing process, normal cells are replenished.
LUMPECTOMY
excision of a small primary breast tumor (a "lump") and some of the normal tissue that surrounds it. Lymph nodes may also be removed because they are located within the breast tissue taken during surgery. Typically, the patient will undergo radiation therapy after lumpectomy.
MASTECTOMY
excision of the entire breast.
TOTAL MASTECTOMY
SIMPLE, excision of the entire breast, nipple, areola, and the involved overlying skin; also called SIMPLE MASTECTOMY. Lymph nodes are removed only if they are included in the breast tissue being removed.
MODIFIED RADICAL MASTECTOMY
Excision of an entire breast, including lymph nodes in the underarm (axillary dissection).
RADICAL MASTECTOMY
excision of the entire breast, all underarm lymph nodes, and chest wall muscles under the breast.
RECONSTRUCTIVE BREAST SURGERY
reconstruction of a breast that has been removed because of cancer or other disease. Reconstruction is commonly possible immediately following mastectomy so the patient awakes from anesthesia with a breast mound already in place.
TISSUE (SKIN) EXPANSION
common breast reconstruction technique in which a balloon expander is inserted beneath the skin and chest muscle, saline solution is gradually injected to increase size, and the expander is then replaced with a more permanent implant.
TRANSVERSE RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE (TRAM) FLAP
Surgical creation of a skin flap (using skin and fat from the lower half of the abdomen), which is passed under the skin to the breast area, shaped
into a natural-looking breast, and sutured into place.
ANTIFUNGALS
treat vaginal yeast infection by altering the yeast cell membrane or interfering with a metabolic process.
ESTROGENS
treat symptoms of menopause (hot flashes, vaginal dryness, fatigue) through hormone replacement therapy (HRT).
ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES
prevents ovulation.
OXYTOCICS
induce labor at term by increasing the strength and frequency of uterine contractions.
PROSTAGLANDINS
terminate pregnancy.
SPERMICIDES
chemically destroys sperm by creating a highly acidic environment in the uterus.
ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE
are the two hormones secreted by the ovaries that are responsible for menstrual cycle and menopause. They also prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilized egg, help maintain pregnancy, promote growth of the placenta, and play an important role in the development of secondary sex characteristics.
INTROITUS
an opening or entrance into a canal or cavity, as the vagina.
METRORRHAGIA
irregular uterine bleeding between menstrual periods.
OXYTOCIN
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland to induce labor (trade name Pitocin).