Chapter 2 Psychology
Terms in this set (48)
There is a negative correlation between wearing one's seat belt and the severity of injuries received during an accident. Which statement correctly illustrates this correlation?
The more often you wear your seat belt, the less likely you are to suffer serious injuries in an accident.
Brittany, a softball player who plays catcher for the local college, has thrown out base stealers at a 42, 39, and 41 percent rate over her three years. Her performance could be considered which of the following?
Coach Ezell wants her platers to relax before playing important conference games. At the halfway point in the season, instead of the dance music she normally had playing in the locker room, she switches to classical music before the games. What is the dependent variable in this scenario?
The players' anxiety levels
Professor Todd decides to test her hypothesis that eating chocolate prior to exams increases students' test scores. She randomly assigns students to two groups at the beginning of the semester. One group receives a bar of chocolate before each test, while the other group receives another type of candy. She compares their scores at the end of the year, and finds that the students who ate the chocolate scored an average of ten points higher on their exams. What is the dependent variable in this experiment?
The students' test scores
The __________ variable is what the experimenter "manipulates" or varies.
The discussion on the topic of facilitated communication demonstrated the importance of which critical component of critical thinking?
Ruling out rival hypotheses
The extent to which it is possible to draw cause-and-effect conclusions from a given research project describes the study's ________ validity.
When acting as a participant in a research study examining the relationship between alcohol consumption and driving ability, Layla was assigned to the experimental group that received the highest amount of alcohol to drink. Despite this ingestion of liquor, Layla was still able to navigate the driver's course perfectly. The experimenter did not consider the fact that Layla had been a drinker for many years, and had developed a high alcohol tolerance. This factor, which impacted the dependent variable in the study, would be called a ________ variable.
A researcher wants to see whether she can make the typical administrative assistant job more motivating at Acme, Inc. To experimentally investigate this possibility, she randomly assigns administrative assistants to one of the following conditions: doing the job as it has always been done, having a computer performance monitoring device installed, receiving feedback about their performance on a weekly basis, or being given a say in how one's workload is structured and done. Which of the preceding conditions is an example of a control group?
Doing the job as it has always been done
Why is it important to make sure that different participant groups are roughly equivalent in terms of personal characteristics (e.g., age, gender) before any independent variable is introduced?
So that no major differences between the groups unduly bias the results of the experiment
An administrator believes that the placement of motivational posters on the walls in classrooms of academic buildings will lead to increased GPAs at his school. To test his theory, he randomly assigns certain classrooms within the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences to have the posters while others do not. None of the remaining four academic colleges have any posters placed in their classrooms. What is the independent variable in this study?
Classroom wall hangings
Ryan, a professional bass fisherman, is trying to determine which lure is most effective on Wakeby Lake: the plastic worm he normally uses or the new minnow-style lure he bought yesterday. Based on this scenario, what would constitute the control?
The plastic worm
What is one take home message from the discussion of autism and facilitated communication?
In almost all cases researched, the data failed to support the idea that facilitated communication was truly effective.
As your textbook discusses, a statistician once discovered that in one of the United States there was a negative correlation between the number of Ph.D.s granted and the number of mules in that state. The fact that you cannot then state that the number of Ph.D.s conferred causes the mule population to decrease demonstrates which principle of critical thinking?
Correlation vs. causation
A group of students watch a videotape of two managers interacting with their subordinates at a customer service desk in a department store. Students see one of the managers act in a friendly and respectful manner toward all of the employees. The other manager is less friendly but still respectful toward the employees. What concept would explain the more positive ratings on other dimensions for the friendly manager as compared to the less friendly manager?
the halo effect
Your textbook discusses the issue of facilitated communication and its applicability to assisting children with autism. One possibility for the early research results was that the children were communicating through the adults who were assisting them. As the book notes, a simpler explanation for the miraculous findings was that the "facilitators" were simply guiding the hands of the children to communicate things that their parents would want to hear. This simpler explanation is consistent with the concept of
Dr. Johansen randomly assigned subjects to three different groups during her last experiment. She then proceeded to give all the participants in the experiment a new study technique designed to enhance their learning for the upcoming test. What critical error did she make during her experiment?
She failed to include a control group
The large difference in the percentages of women who admitted to extramarital affairs in the Hite Report versus a Harris organization pool was most likely due to
the method of participant selection used in each study
The best way to avoid the placebo effect in research is to:
keep the participants "blind" as to which participant group they are in.
A key aspect of an experiment that is missing in other research designs is
Jack, Martin, and Gene are all psychologists who are asked to consult on a difficult case. They are all given the results of a particular client's Rorschach Test, and are asked to come up with independent assessments of the results. All three psychologists have approximately the same level of training, and their findings are very similar. From a research perspective, one could say that there was a high level of ________ reliability between the three reports.
Dr. Potter, an English professor, is curious about his students' attitudes toward one of his favorite books. What research method is he most likely to use to gather this information?
Which of the following correlations represents the weakest degree of relation between two variables?
Daily calcium intake and bone mass density, r = +.11
The variable that an experimenter measures to determine whether or not the manipulation has had an effect is the ________ variable.
Dr. Riviera measures his students' knowledge on the topic of memory by giving them three different quizzes over the course of 3 weeks (1 per week). He is hoping to show that student scores are largely the same from week to week. He is trying to establish the ________ of his quiz.
For many years, newspapers often mentioned the race of criminal suspects who were NOT white in the article detailing their crimes. This often led people who were not obviously biased or prejudiced to conclude that more non-whites committed crimes than whites. This is one example of
an illusory correlation
Alex, a freshman in college, wants to know how many of her dormmates have tried marijuana, so she decides to survey everyone on her floor. Despite rumors to the contrary, the results suggest that fewer than ten percent of her classmates have tried the drug. What is the most likely explanation for her findings?
People often distort their answers or fail to tell the complete truth when surveyed.
One difficulty in conducting medical research is that participants often assume that any treatment will be effective in alleviating their symptoms. Therefore, a researcher has to design an experiment that measures the influence of
the placebo effect
The use of the prefrontal lobotomy was, for quite some time, regarded as a miracle treatment for people suffering from schizophrenia and other mental illnesses. The amazing nature of this treatment was not, however, supported by research into its effectiveness. Which concept of critical thinking is important to consider in this example?
Jasmine took several different self-administered intelligence tests online yesterday and obtained scores of 124, 128, and 125. She felt great, because the score she received from the psychologist last month at school was only a 95. What characteristic might the online tests be lacking?
How does conducting a double-blind study attempt to remedy the experimenter expectancy effect?
Neither the experimenter nor the participant knows what condition the participant is assigned to
A graph that can be used to represent the pattern of relationship between scores from two variables is called a
Watching behavior in real-world settings is known as
A group of student researchers divide up the different times and buildings on their campus to attempt to determine when people will hold a door open for another person. These student researchers are most likely to use which research method design when conducting their study?
Naturalistic observation design
Professor Williams wants to know if "real" college students exhibit the same kinds of behaviors in class that subjects who were paid to act like college students do. She decides to have someone come in once a week to her classes to record the types of nonverbal behaviors that students engage in while listening to her lectures. This would be an example of which kind of study
Professor Golder is studying hyperactivity in preschool age children. She is concerned that differences in child rearing, diet, and so forth may affect her results. To minimize these potential preexisting variables, she should be sure to do which of the following?
Use random assignment when forming her groups.
One difficulty of survey research is that people may not answer questions with complete honesty, and thus may skew the results of the study. If people give different answers to a survey question that is asked on different occasions, this would be a particular problem for the critical thinking concept of ________.
A research design characterized by random assignment of participants to conditions and manipulation of an independent variable is called a
When a psychologist is discussing a heuristic, he or she is referring to
A mental shortcut or rule of thumb.
The study of rare or unusual phenomena is most easily done through the use of the ________ design.
A key disadvantage to self-report measures is that
respondents are not always honest in their answers.
Mr. Jones, a sixth grade science teacher, has tried to predict his students' end-of-the-year grades by looking at their end-of-the-year grades from the previous year. Unfortunately, there does not seem to be any systematic relationship between these two variables. The correlation between these two variables is probably
Dr. Francis is conducting a study in which she is examining the impact of a new math tutoring program on elementary school students' performance in a math class. She has hypothesized that the tutoring will significantly increase the performance of students who are enrolled in this program. She has to remember not to let her expectation of an outcome influence her interpretation of the final data. In other words, she needs to defend against the ________ effect.
Contradicting years of theory and practice, Douglas Biklen claimed that children with autism could, in fact, communicate with the aid of a "facilitator." With his help, these children gave messages of love and warmth to their parents, many of whom had been without such affection since their children were born. When the evidence of this "facilitated communication" is examined, which principle of critical thinking from your chapter is not supported?
The major advantage of self-report measures, like surveys, is that they
are easy to administer.
A________ definition in an experiment refers to a working description of what the researcher is measuring or observing in the study
In an experiment, the __________ group receives no manipulation.
Dr. Schott's scatterplot reveals no real patterns or clusters. In fact, the data seems to fall randomly on the graph. This pattern of results is most likely from which type of correlation?