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PSYCH Test 4

developmental psychology
The study of how people change physically, mentally, and socially throughout the lifespan is called ___________________________.
any agent that causes a birth defect (drugs, radiation, viruses)
Janeen touches her newborn's cheek. Her baby turns toward Janeen's hand and opens her mouth. Janeen has triggered which reflex?
When you put your finger on your newborn nephew's palm, he curls his own fingers around yours, grasping your finger tightly. You have triggered what sort of behavior?
visual system
Of the senses, which is LEAST developed at birth?
Although he is more than a year old, Jason wakes up frequently during the night and is hard to soothe back to sleep. In general, he cries easily, is a fussy eater, and rarely naps at the same time every day. In terms of temperament, Jason would most likely be categorized as _________________ temperament.
Ever since she was a few weeks old, Shelly has been an unusually contented baby who slept and ate well and adapted easily to new experiences. A developmental psychologist would probably describe Shelly's temperament as being
infant attachment
The term used by psychologists to describe and measure the emotional bond between an infant and his or her caregiver is called _____________.
securely attached
Janeen enters the playroom of the psychology lab with her 1-year-old daughter Peggy. Initially, Peggy clings to her mother, but then becomes interested in the attractive toys in the playroom. She picks up a toy and brings it back to her mother, then drops it and approaches the toy box again. Peggy cries when Janeen leaves the room, but quickly calms down again when her mother returns. Peggy would most likely be classified as __________________ attachment style.
anxious resistant attachment
Marie enters the playroom of the psychology lab with her 1-year-old son Aaron. Aaron ignores the many attractive toys in the room and clings to his mother. When Marie leaves the room, Aaron begins to cry hysterically. When his mother returns and tries to comfort him, Aaron cries harder, kicks, and resists her efforts to hold him. Aaron would most likely be classified as ____________________attachment style.
Information is gained through the senses and motor actions, child perceives and manipulates but does not reason, symbols become internalized through language development, object permanence is acquired
According to Piaget, what is occurring during the sensorimotor stage of cognitive
object permanence
Vicki was sitting in the rocking chair and playing with her doll. She dropped the doll, which landed out of view behind the rocking chair. A few moments later, Vicki climbed down and retrieved the doll. Vicki's behavior suggests that she has acquired the cognitive understanding of ____________________.
Mark was upset because he only got half a sandwich while his older sister got two halves of a sandwich. After his mother cut his half sandwich into two pieces, Mark was perfectly happy. Mark is probably in the ___________ stage of cognitive development.
preoperational, concrete operational
The classic conservation task developed by Piaget involves two short containers that contain equal amounts of liquid. While a child watches, the water from one container is poured into a tall, thin beaker, and the child is asked which beaker holds more water, the short container or the tall container. Four-year-old Daniel answers the question incorrectly, while seven-year-old Emily is able to answer the question correctly. Daniel is in the ____________stage of development, whereas Emily is in the ___________stage.
concrete operational stage
Seven-year-old Amy demonstrates logical thinking when she plays checkers with her father. Amy is most likely in the ___________ stage of cognitive development.
T/F Piaget's concept of egocentrism refers to the fact that preoperational children often lack the ability to consider events from another person's point of view.
T/F The correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development are sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
T/F Puberty is the stage of adolescence in which an individual reaches sexual maturity and becomes physiologically capable of sexual reproduction.
T/F Conflicts between parents and adolescent children typically focus on issues of control and authority and the parents' attempts to regulate everyday aspects of their children's lives.
trust, mistrust
According to Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, infancy is characterized by the psychosocial conflict of ________vs. __________.
despair, integrity
According to Erikson's theory, in late adulthood, regret is to ________ as self-acceptance and pride is to ________.
Thirty-year-old Alayna is painfully shy and so sensitive to rejection that she rarely talks to people other than her coworkers and her family members. Occasionally, a man asks her out, but she always refuses. She spends a good deal of time reading and writing in her diary about her loneliness and other feelings. According to Erikson's theory, Alayna is facing the psychosocial conflict of _________ and is likely to develop __________.
T/F According to psychoanalyst Erik Erikson, each stage of the lifespan is marked by a particular conflict that can be resolved in either a psychologically positive or negative way.
T/F According to Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, adolescents can achieve an integrated, stable, and relatively permanent sense of personal identity during a stage called the identity versus role confusion stage.
T/F According to Erik Erikson, achieving a sense of generativity during middle adulthood involves expressing concern for the welfare of future generations through community involvement, caring for others, and productive work.
integrity, despair
According to Erik Erikson, the psychosocial conflict faced in old age is __________ vs. ____________.
T/F Elizabeth Kübler-Ross proposed that people who are dying invariably progress through the stages of (1) denial, (2) anger, (3) bargaining, (4) depression, and finally, (5) acceptance.
(river-unified and unbroken), personal awareness of mental activities, internal sensations, and the external environment
What did psychologist William James mean by the phrase "stream of consciousness"?
circadian rhythms
Any rhythmic change that continues at close to a 24-hour cycle in the absence of 24-hour cues like body temperature, cortisol secretion, sleep and wakefulness
T/F When volunteers are deprived of sunlight and other time cues, their circadian rhythms tend to gravitate to roughly a 24.2-hour day.
T/F Decreased blood levels of melatonin make you sleepy.
T/F The electroencephalograph is the instrument that produces a graphic record of brain activity called an EEG or electroencephalogram.
T/F There are two basic types of sleep: REM sleep and NREM sleep.
rapid eye movement
REM is an acronym that stands for ____________________.
4-5 sleep cycles occur, less time is spent in slow-wave, more is spent in REM
How do the sleep cycles change over the course of a typical night's sleep?
T/F In a normal sleeper, a complete cycle of REM and NREM sleep is about 90 minutes long.
sleep thought
Vague, bland, thoughtlike ruminations about real-life events that usually occur during NREM slow-wave sleep are called _______________.
true dream
An unfolding sequence of perceptions, thoughts, and emotions during sleep (usually REM), that is experienced as a series of real-life events is a description of___________.
T/F During REM sleep, voluntary muscle activity is suppressed and the sleeper is essentially paralyzed.
T/F Over the course of a typical night, periods of REM sleep become progressively longer
Elaine remembers a dream in which a car was parked in front of her house and a man with a baseball bat kept getting in and out of the car. According to Sigmund Freud's theory, the specific dream details that Elaine remembers are called the _______ content.
In psychoanalytic theory, the disguised, symbolic meaning of dreams is called the __________ content.
According to the restorative theory of sleep, _____ is thought to be important for restoring mental functions while _____ is thought to be important for restoring body functions.
sleep (night) terrors
sudden arousal from sleep and intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions (rapid heart rate, perspiration) that occurs during slow-wave sleep
T/F A myoclonic jerk is an involuntary muscle spasm of the whole body that jolts the sleeping person completely awake.
sleep apnea
Mrs. Wilkinson notices that her middle-aged husband stops breathing in his sleep, awakens slightly to gulp in air, then goes back to sleep. This happens several times a night. Mr. Wilkinson is displaying what sleep disorder?
A sleep disorder characterized by overwhelming bouts of excessive daytime sleepiness and brief uncontrollable episodes of sleep is called_____________.
Thomas has been diagnosed with a parasomnia that involves abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences during sleep. Thomas has a sleep disorder called ______________.
The sleep disorder characterized by episodes of walking or performing other actions, typically during NREM stage 3 or 4 slow-wave sleep, is called _________________.
sleep related eating disorder
Rona has a sleep disorder that involves sleepwalking to the kitchen and compulsively eating, with no memory of the behavior in the morning. Rona has a sleep disorder called _____________.